Micronutrients 1: Water-soluble And Fat (lipid)- Soluble vitamins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micronutrients 1: Water-soluble And Fat (lipid)- Soluble vitamins Deck (12):

What are macronutrients?

Carbohydrates, fats and proteins and, in humans, the catabolism of macronutrients to supply energy is an important aspect of nutrition


What are micronutrients?

Vitamins and minerals, (vitamins) of which are compounds necessary for metabolic processes, but the body is either unable to synthesise them, or synthesise sufficient amounts for needs, so they must be obtained from dietary sources


What is the traditional role of a daily multivitamin?

To prevent nutritional deficiency


What are the general features of vitamins?

1. Required in small amounts
2. Are not building blocks for larger molecules
3. Do not yield energy when broken down
4. Humans need at least 12 vitamins in diet


How can vitamins be grouped?

Into water soluble and fat soluble


What are water soluble vitamins?

Vitamin B group, vitamin C


What are fat soluble vitamins?

Vitamins A, D, E and K


Which vitamins are highly variable in structure?

Water soluble


What vitamins are structurally similar and all isoprenoid compounds?

Fat soluble


Features of water soluble vitamins?

1. Functional uniformity
2. Carry mobile metabolic groups (activated carriers, co-enzymes)
3. All except vitamin C require modification for function (precursor molecules)
4. Readily excreted
5. Labile- degraded


Features of lipid-soluble vitamins?

1. Functionally diverse
2. Not as readily absorbed/extracted from dietary foods
3. Generally not co-enzymes/activated carriers
4. Vit A, D act more like hormones (and are toxic in excess)


What are almost all activated carriers that act as co-enzymes derived from?