Flashcards in Micronutrients 1: Water-soluble And Fat (lipid)- Soluble vitamins Deck (12):
What are macronutrients?
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins and, in humans, the catabolism of macronutrients to supply energy is an important aspect of nutrition
What are micronutrients?
Vitamins and minerals, (vitamins) of which are compounds necessary for metabolic processes, but the body is either unable to synthesise them, or synthesise sufficient amounts for needs, so they must be obtained from dietary sources
What is the traditional role of a daily multivitamin?
To prevent nutritional deficiency
What are the general features of vitamins?
1. Required in small amounts
2. Are not building blocks for larger molecules
3. Do not yield energy when broken down
4. Humans need at least 12 vitamins in diet
How can vitamins be grouped?
Into water soluble and fat soluble
What are water soluble vitamins?
Vitamin B group, vitamin C
What are fat soluble vitamins?
Vitamins A, D, E and K
Which vitamins are highly variable in structure?
What vitamins are structurally similar and all isoprenoid compounds?
Features of water soluble vitamins?
1. Functional uniformity
2. Carry mobile metabolic groups (activated carriers, co-enzymes)
3. All except vitamin C require modification for function (precursor molecules)
4. Readily excreted
5. Labile- degraded
Features of lipid-soluble vitamins?
1. Functionally diverse
2. Not as readily absorbed/extracted from dietary foods
3. Generally not co-enzymes/activated carriers
4. Vit A, D act more like hormones (and are toxic in excess)