Flashcards in Plant Bio 3; Plant Medicinal Deck (32):
What do secondary metabolites in plants do?
Defend against herbivores, bacteria, fungi, insects etc, has a role in fertility, attractants and some secondary metabolites are phytonutrients, medicinals
What are primary metabolites?
Core compounds found in most organisms
What are secondary metabolites?
Often involved in defence or interactions with pollinators and often only a few species
What are nitrogen containing compounds?
What are are types of secondary metabolites?
What are alkaloids like?
Heterogenous group of compounds
At least one nitrogen atom- most are basic
Can be toxic to humans
-amino acid derivatives
Examples of purine derivatives from alkaloids?
What are amino acid derivatives from alkaloids?
Histamine; pilocarpine, histamine
Tyrosine; opiates, morphine, codeine
What are four secondary metabolites with evidence of a protective function?
What is isothiocyanate?
From broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables that might detoxify carcinogens
What is lypocene?
A carotenoid abundant in tomatoes and has been shown to protect against several forms of cancer
What is genistein?
An isoflavonoid from sky beans may protect against cancer
What is epigallocatechin gallate?
From green tea that may help eliminate immortality from some cancer cells
Examples of glucosinolates?
Sulforaphane (broccoli) - anticancer properties
What is an example of a potent insecticide?
Organic nitrous bases
More than 10,000
Poisons, narcotics, stimulants and medicine
Source of 25% pharmaceuticals
Structures mean chemical synthesis can be difficult/expensive
What is theobromine less potent than?
Derived from dried latex of poppy
Morphine and codeine- analgesics
Heroin- morphine derivatives
Complex structure means cultivation is the main source
What is morphine?
A powerful narcotic analgesic alkaloid derived from poppy
Examples of opiates?
What are the therapeutic uses for opiates?
What is morphine like?
Effective but addictive
Where are poppies cultivated?
South America and Mexico
What would make a safer poppy?
Allowing it to make morphine and codeine but not heroin
What is EMS mutagenesis?
Treating seeds of a commercial poppy with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS is an organic compound which produces random mutations in genetic material by guanine alkylation)
What happens in EMS mutagenesis?
You alkylate the guanine which pairs with thymine and so the top 1 mutant accumulates thebaine and oripauine but not morphine and codeine
What are thebaine and oripauine used as?
Precursors for semi synthetic analgeasics such as etorphine
Example of a glucosinolate?
What has anti cancer properties in broccoli?
What type of broccoli produces elevated levels of glucoraphanin?
Properties of glucosinolates?
Contain nitrogen and sulphur
Defence mechanism against pest and disease
Glucoraphanin is a precursor of sulforaphane (anti-cancer properties)-source= broccoli