Plant Bio 3; Plant Medicinal Flashcards Preview

Biosci106 > Plant Bio 3; Plant Medicinal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Plant Bio 3; Plant Medicinal Deck (32):
1

What do secondary metabolites in plants do?

Defend against herbivores, bacteria, fungi, insects etc, has a role in fertility, attractants and some secondary metabolites are phytonutrients, medicinals

2

What are primary metabolites?

Core compounds found in most organisms

3

What are secondary metabolites?

Often involved in defence or interactions with pollinators and often only a few species

4

What are nitrogen containing compounds?

Secondary metabolites

5

What are are types of secondary metabolites?

Alkaloids
Glucosinolates

6

What are alkaloids like?

Heterogenous group of compounds
At least one nitrogen atom- most are basic
Can be toxic to humans
-ine (ending)
-purine derivatives
-amino acid derivatives

7

Examples of purine derivatives from alkaloids?

Caffeine
Theobromine
Theophylline

8

What are amino acid derivatives from alkaloids?

Tryptophane; nicotine
Histamine; pilocarpine, histamine
Tyrosine; opiates, morphine, codeine

9

What are four secondary metabolites with evidence of a protective function?

Isothiocyanates
Lypocene
Genistein
Epigallocatechin gallate

10

What is isothiocyanate?

From broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables that might detoxify carcinogens

11

What is lypocene?

A carotenoid abundant in tomatoes and has been shown to protect against several forms of cancer

12

What is genistein?

An isoflavonoid from sky beans may protect against cancer

13

What is epigallocatechin gallate?

From green tea that may help eliminate immortality from some cancer cells

14

Examples of glucosinolates?

Sulforaphane (broccoli) - anticancer properties

15

What is an example of a potent insecticide?

Nicotine

16

Describe alkaloids?

Organic nitrous bases
More than 10,000
Poisons, narcotics, stimulants and medicine
Source of 25% pharmaceuticals
Structures mean chemical synthesis can be difficult/expensive
Economically important

17

What is theobromine less potent than?

Caffeine

18

Describe opiates?

Derived from dried latex of poppy
Morphine and codeine- analgesics
Heroin- morphine derivatives
Complex structure means cultivation is the main source

19

What is morphine?

A powerful narcotic analgesic alkaloid derived from poppy

20

Examples of opiates?

Codeine
Noscapine
Thebaine
Morphine

21

What are the therapeutic uses for opiates?

Pain reliever
Anergesic

22

What is morphine like?

Effective but addictive

23

Where are poppies cultivated?

Middle East
Thailand
South America and Mexico

24

What would make a safer poppy?

Allowing it to make morphine and codeine but not heroin

25

What is EMS mutagenesis?

Treating seeds of a commercial poppy with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS is an organic compound which produces random mutations in genetic material by guanine alkylation)

26

What happens in EMS mutagenesis?

You alkylate the guanine which pairs with thymine and so the top 1 mutant accumulates thebaine and oripauine but not morphine and codeine

27

What are thebaine and oripauine used as?

Precursors for semi synthetic analgeasics such as etorphine

28

Example of a glucosinolate?

Broccoli

29

What has anti cancer properties in broccoli?

Sulforaphane

30

What type of broccoli produces elevated levels of glucoraphanin?

Beneforte

31

Properties of glucosinolates?

Contain nitrogen and sulphur
Defence mechanism against pest and disease
Glucoraphanin is a precursor of sulforaphane (anti-cancer properties)-source= broccoli

32

What is ZMapp?

The growing future of plant-made medicines