Flashcards in Plant Bio 2: Developing Better Food Deck (36):
What are the major human nutritional deficiencies?
Vitamin A 10%
What has the highest source of vitamin A?
What is the absorption and transportation of vitamin A like?
Fat soluble vitamin
Absorbed and transported with lipids
Where is vitamin A stored?
In the liver
What is b-carotene?
What does B-carotene Di oxygenase become?
2x retinal molecules
What is a major role of vitamin A?
Part of the visual pigment rhodopsin
What are forms of vitamin A also involved in?
Maintenance of epithelial tissue
Regulation of growth and differentiation cells- including some cells of the immune system
As part of rhodopsin, what does retinal bind to?
The protein opsin
In regulation of gene expression, what does retinoic acid bind to?
What does retinoic acid (RA) binding to DNA receptors (transcription factors) lead to?
Modification of gene expressions
RA involved in early embryonic development
What are the symptoms of vitamin A deficiency?
Dry cornea and eventual blindness (xerophthalmia)
Night blindness (insufficient retinal for rhodopsin formation)
Impaired immune function
How many people affected by vitamin A deficiency?
What are vulnerable groups for different vitamin A deficiencies?
Children from 6 months to 6 years
What countries have highest vitamin A deficiencies?
Developing countries; Africa, Asia, western pacific
How many children develop xerophthalmia?
What changes GGPP (geranylgeranyl-PP) to phypotene + 2 pyrophosphates?
Phytoene synthase (PSY)
What changes phytoene + 2 pyrophosphates to c-carotene?
What changes c-carotene to lycopene?
Zeta carotene desaturase
What changes lycopene to b-carotene (pro-vitamin A) and a-carotene?
Lycopene cyclase (LCY)
Where does the carotenoid pathway occur?
Which enzyme is rice endosperm?
Lycopene cyclase (LCY)
What is gene 1 in golden rice?
What is gene 2 in golden rice?
Gene from bacteria erwinia=
carotene desaturase 1 CRT 1
What is the ingo potrykus idea?
To increase the b-carotene content in rice grain (endosperm) because it's a staple food source, by using genetic engineering, or a reconstitution of carotenoid pathway in rice endosperm
Genetic engineering process?
How do you add genes into a plant genome?
Hijack a natural process: eg agrobacterium tumefaciens (a natural genetic engineer)
What is transferred from Ti plasmid on the bacterium to the plant genome?
Everything between the LB and the RB on the T-DNA (transfer DNA)
What's in the left border sequence?
ATG; coding sequence; PSY
Terminator poly-A tail
What's in the middle gene 1 sequence?
Choloroplast targeting signal
What's in the third gene for golden rice?
Encode for resistance to antibiotic or herbicide
Example of possible encodings?
What is a 355 gene do?
Expresss gene everywhere aka a constitutive expression
What are the results of the golden rice experiment?
Increased levels of b-carotene
Didn't have high enough levels of carotene to supply provitamin needs
What did the second golden rice use?
PSY gene from maize