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Flashcards in Microorganisms Deck (33)
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1

Raw Poultry

Campylobacter
Salmonella

2

Raw Meat

Campylobacter
Salmonella
Pathogenic E. coli
Clostridium botulinum poses a risk in VP/MAP products

3

Raw Fish and Shellfish

Salmonella
Vibrio parahaemolyticus/ cholerae
Listeria monocytogenes
Clostridium botulinum (MAP/VP)
Histamine (Scombrotoxin) producers
Planktonic toxins (PSP, DSP, ASP)
Viruses

4

Bakery products

Bacillus cereus
Clostridium botulinum (MAP/VP)
Staphylococcus aureus

5

Fruit and Fruit Juices

Salmonella
Listeria monocytogenes
Pathogenic E. coli
Mycotoxin

6

Raw Vegetables / Salad / Sprouted seeds
Salmonella

Salmonella
Listeria monocytogenes
Pathogenic E. coli
Viruses

7

Dairy Products

Salmonella
Listeria monocytogenes
Staphylococcus aureus
Pathogenic E. coli
Campylobacter

8

Processed Foods (RTE or to be reheated)

Clostridium botulinum (MAP/VP chilled products)
Salmonella
Listeria monocytogenes
C. perfringens
Bacillus cereus
Staphylococcus aureus
V. parahaemolyticus
Pathogenic E. coli

9

Dried foods to be cooked (rice/pasta, pulses/grains, herbs/spices, dried meat)

Salmonella
Pathogenic E. coli
Staphylococcus aureus
Bacillus cereus
C. perfringens

10

Dried raw RTE foods (nuts, fruit, museli, herbs/spices

Salmonella
Bacillus cereus
C. perfringens
Aflatoxin (nuts)

11

Dried heatprocessed foods (breakfast cereals, crisps, confectionery, herbs/spices).

Salmonella

12

Dried heatprocessed foods, RTE after rehydration. (Soup mixes, pot snacks, powdered milk based products)

Salmonella
Staphylococcus aureus
Bacillus cereus
C. perfringen

13

Dried Baby Foods (RTE after rehydration)

Salmonella
Pathogenic E. coli
C. perfringens
Bacillus cereus
Cronobacter sakazakii
Staphylococcus aureus

14

Canned, pouched or bottled food (F0>3 process)

Histamine for scombroid fish. Heat resistant bacterial toxins could occur if preprocess growth of toxin producers has occurred

15

Heat treated (F0<3 process) low pH (<4.5) or intermediate moisture foods. E.g. cured meats, products in oil, pickles, sauces, jams

Salmonella
Listeria monocytogenes
C. perfringens
Staphylococcus aureus
Pathogenic E. coli

16

Non-Dairy fats and oils (cooking oil, lard, spreads

Salmonella
Listeria monocytogenes

17

Campylobact thermotolerants
C.jejuni, C coli

infection
Campylobacter species are unable to grow in food, they are killed by heat and a reduction in numbers has also been observed following freezing of contaminated foodstuffs. Cross contamination of ready-to-eat foods in the food preparation environment is an important route of transmission

18

Escherichia coli

infection
patogénica O157 muito fatal young and the elderly

19

Salmonella

infection
high fat / low water activity foods, such as chocolate, fermented meats, cheese and snacks, in which the organism can survive for long periods of time

20

Shigella

Infection can occur in all ages and there is an association between infection and travel to areas where hygiene is poor. - viajante

21

Bacillus cereus

is a diverse group of bacteria which are widespread in the environment, therefore all foods and food ingredients are likely to be contaminated by the spores of this bacterium.
Minimum growth temperatures for B. cereus vary between 4°C and 12°C with an upper limit of around 50°C although some psychrotrophic strains occu.
The emetic and diarrhoeal toxins are distinct; the emetic toxin is pre-formed in food and is both acid and heat stable. Hence foods can be toxic in the absence of viable B. cereus

22

Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium perfringens is found in the gut and thus indicates faecal contamination although spores commonly occur in the environment

23

Listeria monocytogenes

Growth of this bacterium following both post-process contamination of cooked or processed foods or in raw foods probably represents the greatest risk for disease transmission

24

Staphylococcus aureus

If levels exceed 105 cfu/g at any time during the life of a food, there is a risk of sufficient enterotoxin to cause illness that will remain in the food product.
Toxin production starts at 10°C and storage of foods below this should prevent its development

25

Hygiene Enterobacteriacea

This group includes species that originate from the intestinal tract of animals and humans, as well as plants and the environment.

Their presence in heat treated foods therefore signifies inadequate cooking or post-processing contamination.

High levels of these bacteria are expected in some food commodities such as salad vegetables

26

Escherichia coli hygiene

belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family and is used as a faecal indicator

27

Listeria species hygiene

Listeria spp. are also environmental contaminants that can survive in both food processing premises and on equipment if inappropriate hygiene measures are used. These organisms are less sensitive to the cleaning procedures used in food processing environments than many other bacteria.

28

ATC total count

is an indicator of quality, not safety,
High counts may suggest quality issues and possible poor temperature control and these should be investigated.
immediately after a pasteurisation heat process, products will normally have an ACC of below 104 cfu/g, a more rigorous heat process such as grilling, roasting or baking will result in counts below 103 cfu/g.
For canned products that are microbiologically stable at ambient temperature, viable micro-organisms are usually absent but occasionally thermotolerant spores may survive, depending on the severity of the heat process.
Products that have received a drying process will be stable whilst remaining dry, but may contain relatively high numbers of bacteria that can multiply following rehydration.

29

ACC hygine

< 106 cfu/g is usually associated with a mixed flora
>106 there is usually a predominant organism, and the acceptability and organoleptic quality of the food will depend on which type of organism predominates.
Tests by the laboratory for catalase and oxidase production and a Gram stain are sufficient to corrective actions

30

ACC hygine LAB

lactic acid bacteria (mainly lactobacilli and streptococci
Spoilage will eventually occur at a level of around 109 cfu/g due to the production of lactic acid