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Parasitology Lab > Microscope / Microbio / Disinfect > Flashcards

Flashcards in Microscope / Microbio / Disinfect Deck (192):
1

What are the main parts of the microscope?

-Eye Pieces
-Microscope Tube
-Nose-Piece
-Objective
-Mechanical Stage
-Condensor
-Coarse Focusing Knob
-Light Source

See Chart in Notes

2

What are the 3 types of light microscopes?

-Compound (transmitted light)
-Dissecting
-Electron

3

What is the magnification of the ocular lens? Are they adjustable and why?

10x
Yes, for eye spacing.

4

What are the objective lenses?

-4x
-10x
-40x
-100x

5

What is total magnification?

ocular magnification (10x) x objective magnification

6

What do you use to clean a microscope?

Only lens paper or lens cleaner with lens paper.
-NO Kimwipes or Kleenex tissue.

7

What do you clean on a microscope?

-ocular lenses
-objective lenses
-light source
-slide stage
-slide

8

How do you operate a compound microscope?

1. Place the slide on the stage within adjustable slide holder.
2. Adjust condenser to raised position.
3. Adjust diaphragm to limit amount of light.
4. Move lowest objective into place.
5. Move the course focus knob to adjust focus.
6. Move successively higher magnification objectives into place and focus using fine knob.

9

What is parfocal?

Having corresponding focal points all in the same plane : having sets of objectives or eyepieces so mounted that they may be interchanged without varying the focus of the instrument (as a microscope) with which they are used.

10

What is parcentered?

To align the centers of (optical lenses or diaphragms) along one axis.

11

How does an "e" look under the microscope.

Flipped 180*
ə

12

How does the "e" move when adjusting it with the top knob?

-Turning the top knob towards (or to the right) me moves the slide up.
-Turning it away (or to the left) moves it down.

13

How does the "e" move when adjusting it with the bottom knob?

-Turning it towards me moves it left.
-Turning it left, moves the it to the right.

14

What magnification provides you with the greatest DOF?

400

15

Which objective provides the greatest field of vies?

40x

16

Microbe / Microorganism

A living organism that is unable to be seen without a microscope.

17

Pathogens

Disease causing microorganism.

18

Infection

The state produced by the establishment of an infective agent in or on a suitable host.

19

Resistance

Ability to overcome pathogen.

20

Sepsis

Pathogen has succeeded to cause disease; it is now in the blood or tissue of an animal or human.

21

Nosocomial Infection

Hospital acquired infection.

22

Asepsis

Method of producing or maintaining an aseptic condition.

23

Sterile

Free from living organisms, especially microorganisms.

24

Sanitation

Promotion of hygiene and prevention of disease, by maintaining sanitary conditions.

25

Disinfection

Free from infection, especially by destroying harmful microorganisms. Disinfectants are used on inanimate objects.

26

Antiseptics

Used on living tissue.

27

Sterilization

To free from living organisms.

28

Cold Sterilization

Method of disinfecting for minor procedures, using a liquid solution.

29

Control of disease includes?

-Eliminating the source of the disease. (disinfecting, sterilizing).
-Preventing the transmission of the disease. (prevent aerosol of agents, respiratory discharge)
-Providing a method for the host to resist the disease. (vaccination)

30

Physical methods of microbial control?
Basic Info

-Washing and drying in HOT water removes a lot of the microbial load.
-Change out of and wash dirty clothes immediately.

31

Physical methods of microbial control are (6)?

BISUMU

Boiling Water
Incineration
Steam Under Pressure
Ultrasonic Vibration
Moist Heat Sterilization
Ultraviolet Radiation

32

Incineration

-is done to soiled, disposable items.

33

Moist Heat Sterilization
How hot does the water need to be?

-Water is heated to 60 C (140 F).

34

Moist Heat Sterilization
How is it most effective?

-Most effective if use detergent and agitation.

35

Moist Heat Sterilization
What is it good for?

-Good for laundry, mops, basins, trays, and food bowls.

36

Boiling Water
Is it used often?

No. It is not used often in vet practices. However, it may be used on site, such as on location at a farm.

37

Boiling Water
What does it NOT kill?

Does not kill spore forming bacteria and heat resistant viruses.

38

Boiling Water
How to aid the cleaning process?

Add detergent to aid in the cleaning process.

39

Boiling Water
How hot?

Reaches a temperature of 100 C, or 212 F.

40

Boiling Water
How long?

Must boil for 30 minutes.

41

Steam Under Pressure
What do you use?

The autoclave is used.

42

Ultrasonic Vibration
What do you do first?

Hand wash first!! Use distilled water if you do not know the status of the tap water (microbes and pH).

43

Ultrasonic Vibration
How does it work?

Sound waves produce tiny bubbles that have a scrubbing action.

44

Ultrasonic Vibration
Does it sanitize?

Yes, but it does NOT sterilize.

45

Ultrasonic Vibration
What do you do after using it?

Rinse with distilled water, and lubricate.

46

Ultraviolet Radiation
Is it used often?

No. Not used often in vet practice.

47

Ultraviolet Radiation
What does it do?

It sterilized, used for things easily destroyed by heat.

48

Chemical Control
Basic Information

-Follow instruction for the use of various agents.

49

-cidal

Indicates death of organism.

50

-static

Indicates inhibition of growth organisms.

51

antiseptic

May be a dilute form of a disinfectant.

52

Chemical Control
What are the methods (8)?

CHOP SAGA

Cold Sterilization
Heavy Metals
Oxidizing Agents
Phenolic Derivatives

Surfactants
Alcohols
Glutaraldehyde
Aldehydes


53

Cold Sterilization

Objects are soaked in disinfectant.

54

Alcohol
What concentration?

Concentrations above 50% are bactericidal.

55

Alcohol
Can it be used in a cold tray, why?

No, alcohol cannot be used in a cold try because it evaporates too quickly.

56

Alcohol
What can you not use it on?

Do not use it on traumatized skin.

57

Aldehyde
What?

Formaldehyde
-Formalin is the 10% dilution

58

Aldehyde
Used for?

It is used for tissue preservation.

59

Aldehyde
Do you need ventilation, why?

Yes, good ventilation should be used with Aldehydes. They are carcinogenic.

60

Aldehyde
Do you have to make up your own containers?

With biopsy samples, you can purchase already prepared containers.

61

Glutaraldehyde
What?

Cidex

62

Glutaraldehyde
What does it do?

It is sporadical if objects are left to soak for several hours.

63

Glutaraldehyde
How long to kill most microorganisms?

It kills most organisms in 10 minutes.

64

Oxidizing Agents
What do they do?

They disrupt the cell process.

65

Oxidizing Agents
What?

-Chlorine
-Iodine
-Hydrogen Peroxide

66

Oxidizing Agents
How much to dilute bleach?

A 1:5 dilution with water is effective against many bacteria and viruses.

67

Oxidizing Agents
Bleach dilution with Parvo?

A 1:30 dilution is the most effective against parvo.
-1/2 Cup Bleach to 1 Gallon Water

68

Oxidizing Agents
What does iodine do?

It reacts with cells to inhibit enzyme activity.

69

Oxidizing Agents
Iodine concentration?

A concentration of 3.5% or higher will burn living tissue.

70

Oxidizing Agents
Do not combine bleach with?

Do not combine chlorine with ammonia, toxic chlorine gas is formed.

71

Surfactants
What do they do?

Surfactants lower the surface tension of a liquid and allow dislike substances, such as oil and water to mix more easily.

72

Surfactants
What?

Detergents

73

Phenolic Derivatives
What?

-Lysol
-Pine-sol

74

Phenolic Derivatives
Are they effected by excess organic material?

No, they are not easily effected by excess organic material.

75

Heavy Metals
Is Mercury still available?

No, it has been removed from the market.

76

Heavy Metals
Zinc?

Zinc compounds are available for antiseptic use.

77

Disinfectant

An agent that destroys or inhibits microorganisms - typically refers to inanimate objects.

78

Antiseptic

An agent that destroys or inhibits microorganisms - typically refers to living tissue.

79

Iodophors
When are they used?

Used as topical antiseptics before surgical procedures and for wound care.

80

Iodophors
What do they kill?

-virucidal
-bactericidal
-protocidal
-fungicidal

81

Iodophors
Most common?

Iodine combined with polyvinylpyrrolidone, aka povidone-iodine

82

Iodophors
What is the residual activity and is it effected by anything?

The residual activity of povidone-iodine is 4 to 6 hours. This is greatly diminished by the presence of organic matter such as blood. Alcohol will also destroy this residual action.

83

Chlorohexidine
When are they used?

Can be used as an antiseptic and disinfectant.

84

Chlorohexidine
Does it cause tissue damage?

It causes little tissue irritation.

85

Chlorohexidine
What do they work against?

-bacteria
-viruses
-molds
-yeasts

86

Chlorohexidine
How long to work, is it residual?

It has a rapid onset and a long residual activity that is not affected by organic material or alcohol.

87

Chlorohexidine
Brand Name?

Nolvasan
Nolvasan S (means scented)

88

Alcohol
Most common?

-Ethyl Alcohol
-Isopropyl Alcohol

89

Alcohol
Are they used often?

Yes. They are among the most common antiseptics applied to the skin.

90

Alcohol
What is a 70% solution used for?

To disinfect surgical sites, injection sites, and rectal thermometers.

91

Alcohol
How is it effective?

In order for it to be effective against bacteria it must remain in contact with the skin for several seconds. Several minutes to be effective against fungi.

92

Alcohol
Does a cursory swipe do anything?

It does little at an injection site to disinfect it.

93

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Brand Name?

Roccal-D
benz-all

94

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
What are they used for?

To disinfect the surface of inanimate objects.

95

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Effective against?

A wide variety of bacteria, but ineffective against bacterial spores and have poor efficacy against fungi.

96

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
Against viruses?

They can destroy enveloped viruses, ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as parvo.

97

Chlorine Compounds
Most common?

Household bleach.

98

Chlorine Compounds
Against viruses?

Can kill enveloped, and non-enveloped viruses.

99

Chlorine Compounds
Against Parvo?

The disinfectant of choice against parvo.

100

Chlorine Compounds
Effective against?

-viruses
-fungi
-algae
-bacteria

101

Chlorine Compounds
Do they work on bacterial spores?

No. Like many other disinfectants, chlorine bleach is not effective against bacterial spores.

102

Chlorine Compounds
Effective concentration?

Bleach to Water
1:30 for Parvo
1:5 for most other situations

103

Phenols
Effective against?

Some bacteria.

104

Phenols
Not effective against?

-viruses
-fungi
-spores

105

Cold Sterilization
Brand Name

benz-all
(Bensalkonium Chloride)

106

benz-all
Soluble properties

Soluble in:
water
acetone
alcohol

Insoluble in:
ether
benzene (slightly soluble)

107

benz-all
Concentration?

1:750

Quart: one 10cc bottle into 1 quart water.
Gallon: one 40cc bottle into 1 gallon water.

108

benz-all
What kind of water?

Tap is fine unless the water is hard water. Then, distilled is best.

109

benz-all
Instrument storage?

To store some heat sterilized instruments, a 1:750 solution which has not been previously used may be employed for up to 14 days.

110

benz-all
When not to use?

With any instrument thought to be contaminated by spore bearing organisms, mycobacterium tuberculosis, or viral hepatitis. Also not for use with optical instruments with cemented parts.

111

Rocal-D
Dilution?

1/2 ounce to 1 Gallon

112

gram-positive / gram-negative, name after who?

Dr. Hans Christian Gram

113

pyrogens

burning bodies
The term given to endotoxin found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria.

114

Endotoxin Function

To assist in selective transport of matter into the bacterial cell. They also help to defend the bacterial cell, creating potential damage and antibodies in its host.

115

Heat Fixing
Why?

-Prevents sample from washing off.
-Preserves cell morphology.
-Kills bacteria and renders them permeable to stain.

116

Gram Stain
Procedure

-Crystal Violet: let stand for 30 seconds.
-Rinse with distilled water.
-Iodine: let stand for 30 seconds.
-Rinse with distilled water.
-Wash with decolorizer until no more purple washes off (10 seconds or less).
-Rinse with distilled water.
-Safranin: let stand 30 seconds
-Rinse with distilled water

117

Gram Stain
How do you dispose of contents of stain rack?

DO NOT pour into sink. Empty into jar marked for Gram Stain waste. Rinse with a small amount of tap or distilled water. Empty into jar.

118

Gram Positive Bacteria retain which complex?

The violet-iodine and they stain purple.

119

Gram Negative Bacteria stain with what?

They lose the crystal violet and stain red with safranin.

120

Gram Variable Reaction

An organism that stains both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative.

121

Gram Variable Reaction
Why does this occur?

-Excessive decolorization.
-An overly thick smear.
-Excessive heat fixation.
-Old cultures.
-Poor quality of stain.

122

MIC

mean inhibitory content
-the lowest concentration of a specific drug that PREVENTS the growth of an organism.

123

MBC

Mean Bactericidal Concentration
-the lowest concentration of a specific drug that KILLS 99.9% of a given strain of bacteria.

124

Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion Test

Is a routinely used test to qualitatively determine the susceptibility of a given organism to a battery of antimicrobial drugs.

125

Zone of Inhibition

A clear zone of inhibition around a disc reflects the degree of susceptibility of an organism to the drug; the area where the bacteria has been killed off.

126

Zone of Inhibition
How is it measured?

In mm across the complete diameter, including the disc.

127

Zone of Inhibition
How do you know which drugs are effective?

There are special charts to correlate the size of the zone of inhibition to the susceptibility of an organism to the drug; susceptible, intermediate, or resistant.

128

Types of Gram-Positive Bacteria

Staphylococcus
Streptococcus
Clostridium perfringens

129

Staphylococcus
Morphology

-Gram Pos. Cocci
-About 2mm diameter
-Occurring singly, in pairs, tetrads, or clusters.
-Can show alpha, beta, or gamma haemolysis.

130

Staphylococcus
Usually isolated from?

Wounds, dermatitis, otitis, mastitis, cystitis, and osteomyelitis.

131

Streptococcus
Morphology

-Gram Pos. Cocci
-.5-1mm diameter
-occurring in pairs, short or long chains
-can show alpha, beta, and/or gamma haemolosis.

132

Streptococcus
Most common in?

Horses, causes strangles. Also an important cause of bovine mastitis.

133

Clostridium perfingens
Occasionally isolated from?

Deep wounds with extensive tissue necrosis, such as compound fractures.

134

Clostridium perfingens
What type of environment does it need to grow?

The bacterium requires an anaerobic atmosphere for growth.

135

Types of Gram-Negative Bacteria

Escherichia coli
Salmonella
Proteus
Pasteurella
Pseudomonas
Bordetella
Brucella

136

Escherichia coli
Frequently associated with?

Diarrhea in neonates (pigs, calves, lambs)

137

Escherichia coli
How do you know if it is the cause of diarrhea?

If large number of gram-negative rods are observed in each oil immersion field, it is a strong indication that E. coli is the cause.

138

Salmonella
What does it cause?

It can cause diarrhea and septicemia in all animals and humans.

139

Proteus
They are frequently isolated as?

Specimen contaminants or secondary invaders.

140

Proteus
They are important pathogens of?

The urinary tract.

141

Pasteurella
What is is usually associated with?

Respiratory infections in most animals.

142

Pseudomonas
Commonly found?

In soil and water.

143

Pseudomonas
They are usually consider to be?

Opportunistic pathogens of wounds and otitis.

144

Bordetella
Morphology

Small coccobacillus

145

Bordetella
Frequently recovered from?

Respiratory infections of dogs.

146

Brucella
Morphology

Small coccobacillus

147

Brucella
Usually associated with?

Reproductive failure - abortion and infertility.

148

What are 5 techniques for studying bacteria?

1. Cell morphology - under grams stain (+/-).
2. Colonial morphology
3. Biochemistry - enzyme production
4. Serology
5. Animal Inoculation

149

Colonial Morphology
Diameter

Measured in mm.

150

Colonial Morphology
Shape of Colony, Plane View

-circular
-rhizoid
-irregular
-entire
-lenticular

151

Colonial Morphology
Shape of Colony, Cross Section

-convex
-umbonate
-flat

152

Colonial Morphology
Color Characteristics - Haemolosis

a. Alpha - green, gray
b. Beta - clear
c. gamma - any other type

153

Colonial Morphology
Surface

-dull
-shiny
-ground glass

154

Colonial Morphology
Texture

-caseous
-hard
-mucoid

155

Colonial Morphology
Motility

-motile, swarming
-non-motile

156

Biochemistry

1. Utilization of carbs - produce acid and/or gas.
2. Produce indole
3. Produce H2S from sulfa
4. Tolerance

157

What is the primary concern in veterinary bacteriology?

What antibiotic can be used to treat this infection, then you are concerned with what the organism is. Identification need only be made to a group type.

158

Strep agalactiae
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Pos. Cocci
-Small, translucent, bluish-white colonies.
-Convex
-Beta haemolysis may be seen.

159

Strep dysgalactiae
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Pos. Cocci
-Small, translucent, bluish-white colonies.
-Convex
-Alpha haemolysis, greening around colonies.

160

Strep Group G
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Pos. Cocci
-Small, translucent, bluish-white colonies.
-Convex
-Large area of Beta haemolysis

161

Strep uberis (+)
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Pos. Cocci
-Small, translucent colonies.
-Large area of greening (alpha).
-Positive CAMP reaction.

162

Strep uberis (-)
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Pos. Cocci
-Small, translucent colonies.
-Large area of greening (alpha).
-Negative CAMP reaction.

163

Staph aureus
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Pos. Cocci
-Large, opaque, orange to white colonies
-alpha, alpha/beta, or beta haemolysis
-Most are coagulase Pos. and ferment manitol.

164

Staph spp.
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Pos. Cocci
-Large, opaque, orange to white colonies
-Show no haemolysis, or small alpha
-Are NOT coagulase Pos.

165

What do you do to distinguish Staph aureus from Staph spp.

Do a coagulase manitol test.

166

E. coli
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Neg. Rod
-Single, paired, short chains
-Non-encapsulated, non-spore forming
-Convex
-Gray to whitish-yellow colonies
-Large 2mm+
-Ferments most carbs to acid and/or gas.
-Citrate Neg
-No H2S produced on TSI
-Fecal odor

167

Klebsiella
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Neg. Rod
-Single, paired, chained
-Convex
-Mucoid
-White to yellow-brown colonies
-Large 2mm+
-Converts most sugars to acid and/or gas
-Citrate pos
-No H2S

168

Pseudomonas
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Neg. Rod
-Single, pair, short chains
-Large spreading colonies
-Grayish-green with a dark center, and translucent, irregular edge.
-Produces a blue-green pigment that diffuses into media - grape juice color
-Ground glass appearance
-Doesn't ferment most sugars
-Citrate Pos

169

Pasteurella
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Neg. Rod
-Small rod
-Usually shows bipolar staining
-Grayish-yellow
-Smooth
-Glistening and transparent colonies
-Doesn't ferment common sugars
-Citrate Neg
-No growth on McConkeys agar

170

Proteus
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Neg. Rod
-Single, pair, or as chains
-Pleomorphism may be observed
-usually 98% are motile
-Warm chocolate cake odor
-Citrate Pos
-No acid or gas produced
-Usually produces H2S
-Large 2mm+

171

Serratia
Colonial Morphology

-Gram Neg. Rod
-Single
-Non-encapsulate, non-sporeforming
-Smooth
-Glistening
-Large 2mm+
-Pigment may be absent, usually orange to brick red
-Citrate Pos
-On TSI, see red slant / yellow butt

172

Yeast
Colonial Morphology

-Observe under methylene blue stain.
-Ovoid forms much larger than cocci.
-Observe for budding, entire, convex, white, sweet smelling colonies of medium size.

173

Mold
Colonial Morphology

-Large diffuse colonies
-Variable pigmentation

174

Nocardia

-Higher bacteria form
-Dry, irregular, small, white, colonies
-Dried toothpaste appearance
-Under methylene blue see coccoid cells, hyphae, and.or mycelia.

175

Portotheca

-An achlorophyllic algae
-Small, dull, white colonies
-Semi-sweet smell
-Under methylene blue see large matrix type cells
-6 to 8 times as large as yeast cells
-Many will show a distinct capsule

176

Coryneabacterium

-Small, white colonies that don't show up until 48 hours
-Small, gram Pos. rods
-May show polar staining
-Observe Chinese Character formation
-Bovis is non hemolytic
-Pyogenes is Beta hemolytic

177

Pure Culture

A culture in wich all or almost all the colonies are the same.

178

Mixed Culture

A culture in which you have more than one type of organism, but each is a pure culture.

179

Aesculin Blood Agar

Basic streaking media.

180

Mueller-Hinton Agar

For sensitivity testing.

181

McConkey Agar

Contains bile salts which inhibit Gram Pos. organisms.

182

TSI Agar

Contains lactose, dextrose, and sucrose. Shows sugar fermentation and gas, H2S production. Use for ID of Gram Neg.

183

Simmons Citrate Agar

Shows Gram Neg. organisms citrate utilization reactions.

184

CAMP Agar

By reactions can distinguish between the Strep spp.

185

Coagulase Manitol

Used to distinguish Staph aureus from Staph spp by coagulase and manitol utilization.

186

TSI Tubes

Start Red
Red = alkaline (Neg)
Yellow = acid produced (Pos)
Gas Production in Butt
H2S Production in Butt

187

Simmons Citrate Tubes

Start Green
Green = No reaction (Neg)
Blue = Citrate utilized (Pos)

188

OSHA is?

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

189

Appropriate measures that need to be taken with food or drink in practice?

-Staff cannot be allowed to eat or drink when there is biological or chemical hazards present.
-Must have a separate refrigerator for staff food only.

190

What does MSDS Stand for?

Material Data Safety Sheet

191

Where should MSDS be kept?

They should be kept in a centralized location in the hospital.

192

Why are MSDS kept?

So employees can find out what to do and how to handle chemicals.