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Parasitology Lab > Methods of Microbial Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Methods of Microbial Control Deck (84):
1

What is Cold Sterilization, and what is used?

Method of disinfecting for minor procedures, using a liquid solution.

2

What 3 things does control of disease include?

-Eliminating the source of the disease. (disinfecting, sterilizing).
-Preventing the transmission of the disease. (prevent aerosol of agents, respiratory discharge)
-Providing a method for the host to resist the disease. (vaccination)

3

Physical methods of microbial control?
-Basic Info

-Washing and drying in HOT water removes a lot of the microbial load.
-Change out of and wash dirty clothes immediately.

4

Physical methods of microbial control are (6)?
BISUMU

Boiling Water
Incineration
Steam Under Pressure
Ultrasonic Vibration
Moist Heat Sterilization
Ultraviolet Radiation

5

Incineration is done to?

Soiled, disposable items.

6

Moist Heat Sterilization
-How hot does the water need to be?

-Water is heated to 60 C (140 F).

7

Moist Heat Sterilization
-How is it most effective?

-Most effective if both detergent and agitation are used.

8

Moist Heat Sterilization
-What is it good for?

Good for laundry, mops, basins, trays, and food bowls.

9

Boiling Water
-Is it used often?

No. It is not used often in vet practices. However, it may be used on site, such as on location at a farm.

10

Boiling WaterWhat does it NOT kill?

Does not kill spore forming bacteria and heat resistant viruses.

11

Boiling Water
-How to aid the cleaning process?

Add detergent to aid in the cleaning process.

12

Boiling Water
-How hot?

Reaches a temperature of 100 C, or 212 F.

13

Boiling Water
-How long?

Must boil for 30 minutes.

14

Steam Under Pressure
-What do you use?

The autoclave is used.

15

Ultrasonic Vibration
-What do you do first?

Hand wash first!! Use distilled water if you do not know the status of the tap water (microbes and pH).

16

Ultrasonic Vibration
-How does it work?

Sound waves produce tiny bubbles that have a scrubbing action.

17

Ultrasonic Vibration
-Does it sanitize?

Yes, but it does NOT sterilize.

18

Ultrasonic Vibration
-What do you do after using it?

Rinse with distilled water, and lubricate.

19

Ultraviolet Radiation
-Is it used often?

No. Not used often in vet practice.

20

Ultraviolet Radiation
-What does it do?

It sterilizes, used for things easily destroyed by heat.

21

Chemical Control
-Basic Information

Follow instruction for the use of various agents.

22

What does -cidal mean?

Indicates death of organism.

23

What does -static mean?

Indicates inhibition of growth organisms.

24

What can an Antiseptic be?

May be a dilute form of a disinfectant.

25

Chemical ControlWhat are the methods (8)?
CHOP SAGA

Cold Sterilization
Heavy Metals
Oxidizing Agents
Phenolic Derivatives

Surfactants
Alcohols
Glutaraldehyde
Aldehydes

26

What is Cold Sterilization?

Objects are soaked in disinfectant.

27

Alcohol
-What concentration?

Concentrations above 50% are bactericidal.

28

Alcohol
-Can it be used in a cold tray, why?

No, alcohol cannot be used in a cold try because it evaporates too quickly.

29

Alcohol
-What can you not use it on?

Do not use it on traumatized skin.

30

Aldehyde
-What?

Formaldehyde-Formalin is the 10% dilution

31

Aldehyde
-Used for?

It is used for tissue preservation.

32

Aldehyde
-Do you need ventilation, why?

Yes, good ventilation should be used with Aldehydes. They are carcinogenic.

33

Aldehyde
-Do you have to make up your own containers?

With biopsy samples, you can purchase already prepared containers.

34

Glutaraldehyde
-What?

Cidex

35

Glutaraldehyde
-What does it do?

It is sporadical if objects are left to soak for several hours.

36

Glutaraldehyde
-How long to kill most microorganisms?

It kills most organisms in 10 minutes.

37

Oxidizing Agents
-What do they do?

They disrupt the cell process.

38

Oxidizing Agents
-What?

-Chlorine
-Iodine
-Hydrogen Peroxide

39

Oxidizing Agents
-How much to dilute bleach?

A 1:5 dilution with water is effective against many bacteria and viruses.

40

Oxidizing Agents
-Bleach dilution with Parvo?

A 1:30 dilution is the most effective against parvo. -1/2 Cup Bleach to 1 Gallon Water

41

Oxidizing Agents
-What does iodine do?

It reacts with cells to inhibit enzyme activity.

42

Oxidizing Agents
-What Iodine concentration can be harmful?

A concentration of 3.5% or higher will burn living tissue.

43

Oxidizing Agents
-Do not combine bleach with?

Do not combine chlorine with ammonia, toxic chlorine gas is formed.

44

Surfactants
-What do they do?

Surfactants lower the surface tension of a liquid and allow dislike substances, such as oil and water to mix more easily.

45

Surfactants
-What do we use?

Detergents

46

Phenolic Derivatives
-What?

-Lysol
-Pine-sol

47

Phenolic Derivatives
-Are they effected by excess organic material?

No, they are not easily effected by excess organic material.

48

Heavy Metals
-Is Mercury still available?

No, it has been removed from the market.

49

Heavy Metals
-Zinc?

Zinc compounds are available for antiseptic use.

50

What is a Disinfectant?

An agent that destroys or inhibits microorganisms - typically refers to inanimate objects.

51

What is an Antiseptic?

An agent that destroys or inhibits microorganisms - typically refers to living tissue.

52

Iodophors
-When are they used?

Used as topical antiseptics before surgical procedures and for wound care.

53

Iodophors
-What do they kill?

-virucidal
-bactericidal
-protocidal
-fungicidal

54

Iodophors
-Most common?

Iodine combined with polyvinylpyrrolidone, aka povidone-iodine.

55

Iodophors
-What is the residual activity and is it effected by anything?

The residual activity of povidone-iodine is 4 to 6 hours. This is greatly diminished by the presence of organic matter such as blood. Alcohol will also destroy this residual action.

56

Chlorohexidine
-When are they used?

Can be used as an antiseptic and disinfectant.

57

Chlorohexidine
-Does it cause tissue damage?

It causes little tissue irritation.

58

Chlorohexidine
-What do they work against?

-bacteria
-viruses
-molds
-yeasts

59

Chlorohexidine
-How long to work, is it residual?

It has a rapid onset and a long residual activity that is not affected by organic material or alcohol.

60

Chlorohexidine
-Brand Name?

-Nolvasan
-Nolvasan S (means scented)

61

Alcohol
-Most common?

-Ethyl Alcohol
-Isopropyl Alcohol

62

Alcohol
-Are they used often?

Yes. They are among the most common antiseptics applied to the skin.

63

Alcohol
-What is a 70% solution used for?

To disinfect surgical sites, injection sites, and rectal thermometers.

64

Alcohol
-How is it effective?

In order for it to be effective against bacteria it must remain in contact with the skin for several seconds. Several minutes to be effective against fungi.

65

Alcohol
-Does a cursory swipe do anything?

It does little at an injection site to disinfect it.

66

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
-Brand Name?

-Roccal-D
-benz-all

67

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
-What are they used for?

To disinfect the surface of inanimate objects.

68

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
-Effective against?

A wide variety of bacteria, but ineffective against bacterial spores and have poor efficacy against fungi.

69

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
-Against viruses?

They can destroy enveloped viruses, ineffective against non-enveloped viruses such as parvo.

70

Chlorine Compounds
-Most common?

Household bleach.

71

Chlorine Compounds
-Against viruses?

Can kill enveloped, and non-enveloped viruses.

72

Chlorine Compounds
-Against Parvo?

The disinfectant of choice against parvo.

73

Chlorine Compounds
-Effective against?

-viruses
-fungi
-algae
-bacteria

74

Chlorine Compounds
-Do they work on bacterial spores?

No. Like many other disinfectants, chlorine bleach is not effective against bacterial spores.

75

Chlorine Compounds
-Effective concentration?

Bleach to Water
-1:30 for Parvo
-1:5 for most other situations

76

Phenols
-Effective against?

Some bacteria.

77

Phenols
-Not effective against?

-viruses
-fungi
-spores

78

Cold Sterilization
-What is the brand name of the chemical used?

benz-all (Bensalkonium Chloride)

79

benz-all
-Soluble properties

Soluble in:
-water
-acetone
-alcohol

Insoluble in:
-ether
-benzene (slightly soluble)

80

benz-all
-Concentration?

1:750
-Quart: one 10cc bottle into 1 quart water.
-Gallon: one 40cc bottle into 1 gallon water.

81

benz-all
-What kind of water?

Tap is fine unless the water is hard water. Then, distilled is best.

82

benz-all
-Instrument storage?

To store some heat sterilized instruments, a 1:750 solution which has not been previously used may be employed for up to 14 days.

83

benz-all
-When not to use?

With any instrument thought to be contaminated by spore bearing organisms, mycobacterium tuberculosis, or viral hepatitis. Also not for use with optical instruments with cemented parts.

84

Rocal-D
-Dilution?

1/2 ounce to 1 Gallon