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At what gestation do you anticipate
a woman will become nauseated and
what is the possible reason for this?

6-12-20 weeks
hCG increase,
Progesterone increase
decreased peristalsis


What element contributing to
conception is viable for 30- 80



List 5 common discomforts of
pregnancy and midwifery advice to
address these

N&V- small frequent healthy meals
Fatigue- rest when able
Constipation/ Haemorrhoids - A FEW
Heartburn- small meals avoid lying down after eating
Skin changes- sunscreen, moisturising
Dizziness- slow to stand, check iron, hydration, BP


What is the name given to the thick,
white mucousy discharge from a
woman's vagina during pregnancy?



Name the seven most common
blood tests taken at the first
antenatal booking visit?

Blood Group, Rh factor, Antibodies,
Vit D, FBC, Rubella, Varicella, Hep B,


What is the term that describes the
mother's first perception of fetal



At what gestation are the trimesters

T1 = Wk 1 - 12
T2 = Wk 13- 27
T3 = Wk 28-42


What does the acronym EPDS stand
for and what does it assess?

Edinborough Postnatal Depression
Trick: it doesn't assess- it screens;)


Melanie is 29 years old,
At age 19, Melanie had a TOP at 6 weeks gestation.
At age 22, Melanie had a miscarriage at 12 weeks
At age 24, she had a stillborn baby at 22 weeks gestation at FSH born by Spontaneous labour and birth. Intact perineum. Autopsy: cause unknown, girl.
In 2011 Melanie had a liveborn girl Chloe at 41 + 3 weeks gestation at KEMH. Melanie was induced for post-dates. Intact perineum. Baby weighed 3,450g. Breastfeeding duration 6 months. Melanie is currently pregnant, with the due date 22 September 2017
by her 6 week U/S

G 5 P2 -1


What is the term for the ~butterfly
effect' or mask of pregnancy seen on
a woman's face during pregnancy?



What is the name of the brown
pigment line that appears in the
middle of a woman's abdomen
during her pregnancy?

Linea Nigra


At 24 weeks gestation where would
you expect to find the fundus?

Maternal Umbilicus


Why are the 28th and 34th weeks of
gestation important for a woman
who is Rhesus negative?

Recommended gestation for Anti-D


PV, PR Screening for the presence of
which bacteria is offered to women
from 34 weeks gestation?

Group B Streptococcus


When is Term gestation?

40-42 weeks
RANZCOG - > 37 I 40
ACOG- 39/40- 40+6
RCOG 41 completed weeks


Name the seven bones that make up
the vault of the fetal skull.

Frontal x2
Parietal x2


Name the four sutures of the vault of
the fetal skull that are of importance in
midwifery care.

Frontal Suture
Coronal suture
Saggital Suture
Lambdoidal Suture


Name the 2 major fontanelles,
describe their shape and when each
of them closes.

Anterior fontanelle- diamond- 18- 24 months
Posterior fontanelle- triangle- 2 -3 months


Indicate the position of the fetus
when the occiput points to the right
S1 joint; and the saggital suture is in
the right oblique diameter of the
maternal pelvis



What is the word to describe the
movement of fetal bones that allows
the fetal head to reduce its



5 reasons to have a CTG antenatally

Reduced fetal movements
Over dates
To check for early labour


5 reasons to have a CTG intrapartum

High risk pregnancy
Epidural in place
SROM over 24 hours
Mech/ blood lycor
Prolongued second stage


How do you assess that someone is in labour?

-Assess the frequency, duration and strength of any contractions.
-Perform a vaginal examination. Note the following
The colour of the amniotic fluid if present., Cervical dilatation and effacement., Any caput or moulding present., Level and position of presenting part.


What is the definition of third stage and what are the recommendations

Third stage of labour: The part of labour from the birth of the baby until the placenta and foetal membranes are delivered

Active management of third stage should be recommended to all women as it shortens the third stage and reduces the risk of postpartum haemorrhage and the need for blood transfusion.


When do I know when to come into hospital?

Come into hospital if you have
- strong contractions 3- 4 in 10 mins
- waters have broken
- vaginal bleeding
- persistent abdominal pain
- Symptoms of high blood pressure
- Change in activity of your baby


How do you know shes in labour and what are you going to do.

- Persistent lower back pain or abdominal pain, with a pre-menstrual feeling and cramps.
- Painful contractions that occur at regular and increasingly shorter intervals, and become longer and stronger in intensity.
- Broken waters. Your membranes may rupture with a gush or a trickle of amniotic fluid. Either way, call your midwife or hospital to let them know.
- A brownish or blood-tinged mucus discharge (bloody show). If you pass the mucus plug that blocks the cervix, labour could be imminent, or it could be several days away. It's a sign that things are moving along.
- An upset tummy or loose bowels.
- A period of feeling very emotional or moody.
- Disrupted sleep.

get the mum to communicate with the ward so the midwife can assess how far along she is.


How do you know a woman is in second stage?

VE confirms full dilation of the woman's cervix
woman displays second stage behaviour such as moving around, unsettledness, feeling that they have to push, grunting noises, line that appears from the bottom upwards and woman is considered as fully, longer and stronger contractions with 1-2 mins apart, increased pressure in bottom, nausea and vomitting, early decels in a CTG stretching burning sensation in vagina,


What is active management of third stage
What is a physiological third stage? And what is normal.

Active management of the third stage is giving the woman a hormone, oxytocin (commonly known as Syntocinon® and Syntometrine®), after the baby is born, to assist in delivering the placenta. This hormone is the same hormone produced by the brain to get the uterus to contract in labour.
- the cord is cut and clamped and the delivery of the placenta is helped by pulling (often called traction) on the cord by the midwife or doctor.


what are the Personal Details needed for antenatal booking visit?

name, tel numbers, work, work place hazards, marital status, language spoken, religious or cultural needs, country of origin, ethnicity, smoker, drinker


what are the details required surrounding Medical / Surgical History?

gynaecological (last pap smear)
anaesthetic and reactions
mental health issues
Blood transfusions
known allergies
family history,
Dental care


Which screening tests are offered at booking visit?

Bloods – HB, Rhesus D Factor, FBC, Ferritin, Red-Cell Antibodies, Hep B, Hep C, HIV, STI’s, Rubella, Varicella
Domestic violence screening
Ultrasounds – gestational age (dating scan), (Nuchal translucency screening), anatomy scan- location of placenta
Alcohol intake
smoking and nicotine
Drug intake
MSU sent and weekly urine Analysis for infection and proteinuria


Which baseline obs are done at booking visit?

BMI – weight and height
Maternal observations – BP, HR, Weight
Fundal height
Abdominal Palpation – not able to determine fetal position
Fetal heart rate


Which other appointments/referrals may be offered at a booking visit?

Social worker
Spec obs
Antenatal classes
Welfare officer
other hospital dependent on co-morbidities.


What are the visiting schedules for a pregnant woman?

8 weeks (booking visit) then 4 weekly - 12 weeks -16 weeks - 20 weeks -24 weeks - 28 weeks
Then 2 weekly from 28 weeks -30 weeks -32 weeks 36 weeks -
Then weekly from 36 weeks -37 weeks -38 weeks -39 weeks -40 weeks -41 weeks


what are foods to avoid in pregnancy

Soft, blue, goats, sheeps, unpasteurised cheeses
Pates (and liver in large quantities)
Uncooked / cold / smoked seafood
Raw eggs (home made mayo / chocolate mousse / coleslaw)
Soft serve ice-cream/thick shakes
Cold deli meats (such as diced chicken, salami, ham)


what are the minor discomforts of pregnancy

Morning sickness
Varicose veins


What is the management of nausea and vomiting

dry biscuits
fizzy drinks
small meals simple carbs


what is the management of constipation

increase fluids
increase exercise
increase fibre - bran cereals, and vegetables


what is the management for haemorrhoids

increase fluids
increase exercise
increase fibre - bran cereals, and vegetables
Proctosedyl ointment for 7 days treatment
Pelvic floor exercises
Avoid straining on the toilet
Ice packs (10 mins in one hour)


what is the management for varicose veins

Keep legs elevated
Leg exercises
Support tights: (from chemist or possible refer to physio for measurement)


what is the management for vaginal varicose veins

Pelvic floor exercises


what is the management for lower back pain

Low shoes
Use legs rather than back to lift
Avoid lifting, pushing, pulling as much as possible
Don’t slouch, lean
Roll onto side to sit up
Refer to physio


What is the management for reflux

Avoid fatty, spicy foods and caffeine
Drink yoghurt, coconut milk, cold milk.
Avoid tobacco and alcohol
Eat smaller meals slowly
Antacids: Gaviscon, Gastrogel


What is the management for leg cramps

Pull toes up to chin
Take a Magnesium supplement
Increase sodium intake (slightly)


What should be done at the 16 week appointment

Fundal height – clinical estimation
Fetal heart rate (if woman agrees)
BP and urinalysis
Invite women to discuss concerns/issues since last visit, offer verbal and written information
Review, discuss, record test results
Assess EPDS
If indicated, arrange follow-up investigations, referrals, reassess plan of care
Measure BP, weight if influences management, test urine for protein for women at high risk of pre-eclampsia
Offer fetal anomaly ultrasound scan for between 18-20 weeks


What should be done at the 24 week appointment

Invite women to discuss concerns/issues since last visit, offer verbal and written information, including
antenatal education
Offer screening for anaemia, blood group and antibodies
Discuss fetal movements (timing, normal patterns of behaviour)
Measure symphysis-fundal height, BP, weight, test urine for protein for women at high risk of pre-eclampsia


What should be completed between 18-20 weeks

If the woman chooses, a morphology ultrasound scan should be performed. If the placenta is found to
extend across the internal cervical os, another scan at 32 weeks should be offered
Offer diabetes screening between 24- 28 week


What should be completed between 32 weeks

Invite women to discuss concerns/issues since last visit, offer verbal and written information, infant
feeding including breastfeeding and skin-to-skin
Measure symphysis-fundal height, BP, weight, test urine for protein for women at high risk of preeclampsia,
discuss fetal movements
Review, discuss and record test results
Reassess plan of care; identify women who require additional care


What should be completed at antenatal appointment at 28 weeks

8 Invite women to discuss concerns/issues since last visit, offer verbal and written information, including
antenatal classes, infant feeding including breastfeeding and skin-to-skin
Offer Anti-D to rhesus negative women, investigate Hb less than 10.5g/100ml & consider iron
supplements, if indicated
Offer screening for anaemia, blood group and antibodies (if there was no 25 week visit)
Reassess EPDS at 28-30 weeks
Measure symphysis-fundal height, BP, weight, test urine for protein for women at high risk of
pre-eclampsia, discuss fetal movements (timing, normal patterns of behaviour)
Measure BMI if this is likely to influence clinical management


What should be completed at antenatal appointment at 34 weeks

Invite women to discuss concerns/issues since last visit, offer verbal and written information, including
labour & birth, birth plan, recognising active labour, coping with labour, breast feeding (including skinto-skin)
or formula feeding if chosen
Discuss and provide written information on Group B strep and the screening test at 36 weeks
Discuss repeat full blood picture and Rhesus screening test at 36 weeks
Offer 2nd Anti-D to Rhesus negative women
Measure symphysis-fundal height, BP, weight, test urine for protein for women at high risk of preeclampsia,
discuss fetal movements
Offer Ultrasound Scan to women if morphology scan suggested repeat to assess location of placenta
Reassess plan of care; identify women who require additional care


What should be completed at antenatal appointment at 36 weeks

nvite women to discuss concerns/issues since last visit
Offer verbal and written information, including care of the new baby, infant feeding, including
breastfeeding, safe sleeping, newborn screening tests and vitamin K prophylaxis, the postnatal period
including distress; provide an opportunity to discuss issues and ask questions; offer ongoing support
Offer Group B strep screening test
Measure symphysis-fundal height, BP, weight, test urine for protein for women at high risk of
pre-eclampsia, discuss fetal movements
Check position of baby, for women with breech presentation, discuss options and offer external cephalic
version (ECV)
Review ultrasound scan report if performed at last visit


What should be completed at antenatal appointment at 38 weeks

Review screening /diagnostic test results undertaken at 36 weeks and develop plan of care if required
Invite women to discuss concerns/issues since last visit, offer verbal and written information, including
normal length of pregnancy (two weeks before or after expected due date), onset of labour, any fears/
worries; provide an opportunity to discuss issues and ask questions
Measure and plot symphysis-fundal height, BP, weight, test urine for protein for women at high risk of
pre-eclampsia, discuss fetal movements


What should be completed at antenatal appointment at 40 weeks

For women having their first baby
Invite women to discuss concerns/issues since last visit, offer verbal and written information, including
options for prolonged pregnancy; provide an opportunity to discuss issues and ask questions
Measure symphysis-fundal height BP, weight, test urine for protein for women at high risk of preeclampsia,
discuss fetal movements


What should be completed at antenatal appointment at 41 weeks

Invite women to discuss concerns/issues since last visit , offer information, including further discussion
about options for prolonged pregnancy; provide an opportunity to discuss issues and ask questions
Measure symphysis-fundal height BP, weight, test urine for protein for women at high risk of preeclampsia,
discuss fetal movements
Offer membrane sweep, induction of labour
Advise to be vigilant of a reduction in fetal movements


What is the definition of the first stage of labour:

From the onset of regular purposeful contractions
(which cause cervical changes) until full
dilatation of the cervix.


What are the Signs of Impending Labour

Mucous show
Need to feel safe
Braxton hicks


What is the latent first stage of labour

up to 4cm dilatation


What is the active first stage of labour

from 4 cm to fully


What starts labour?

drop in progesterone production by placenta so higher ratio of oestrogen to progesterone
Oestregen-increases myometrial sensitivity, promotes prostaglandins synthesis which promotes the release of oxytocin.


What can happen to Blood pressure in labour

Rises during contractions (systolic 10 – 20 mm Hg, diastolic 5 – 10 mm Hg)
Further exacerbated by pain, fear, apprehension
Can be lowered by lying on side


What can happen to metabolism in labour

Carbohydrate metabolism rises due to anxiety and increased skeletal muscle activity
Leads to increase in vital signs, cardiac output and fluid loss


What can happen to temperature in labour

Slightly elevated is normal, reflecting increased metabolism
Any significant or prolonged elevation may be due to dehydration or infection


What happens to maternal pulse in labour

Slightly higher than average during labour
More marked elevation with contractions


What happens to respiratory rate in labour

Slightly elevated
Exacerbated by excitement, pain, apprehension, breathing techniques (prevent hyperventilation)


Renal implications in labour

Increased cardiac output leads to higher glomerular filtration rate and increased urine output
Slight proteinuria common


Gastrointestinal implications in labour

Reduced gastric motility and absorption
Delayed gastric emptying of food (not fluids)
Nausea and vomiting common


Haematological implications in labour

Decreased blood coagulation time
Increased white cell count
Reduced blood glucose level


What is the effect of oxytocin in pregnancy and birth

Uterine contractions
Pressure of baby on cervix
Distension of pelvic floor muscles
Stretching of perineum

Oxytocin receptors increase in number as gestation increases


What are the triggers for oxytocin release

Stimulation of clitoris
Distension of the vagina
Pressure on the cervix
Distension of pelvic floor muscles
Stretching of the perineum
Nipple stimulation


What are inhibitors of oxytocin release

Fear and anxiety
Exogenous oxytocin
Separation of mother and baby


What are the effects of adrenaline in pregnancy and birth

Inhibits oxytocin production and release
Reduces blood flow to uterine muscle which results in increased pain
Pause in cervical dilatation
Raised BP
Panic behaviours


What do you need to know when a woman enters the labour ward

Record medical/social/obstetric history/allergies
Frequency and duration of contractions
Are the membranes ruptured?
How is the woman coping?
Is there a birth plan or obstetric plan?
Group B strep status
Blood group


What are the regular observations that need to be done for a woman in labour?

As per policy
Temp 4/24 if membranes intact, 2/24 if ruptured and 1/24 if febrile
Pulse 4/24 in latent phase and 30 minutely in active
BP 4/24 in latent phase and 2/24 in active labour
Resps on admission and as per policy
Amniotic fluid if ruptured 2/24 in early labour, 30 minutely in active labour
Bladder: U/A on admission, regular bladder emptying (2/24 and measure in active labour)
Diet as appropriate
Fetal heart rate: 15-30 minutely. Also fetal movements, though these may be reduced


What is the normal fetal HR



What are signs of transition

Any or all of the following:
Belief she can’t carry on
Fearfulness (sometimes of death)
Uncontrollable shivering
Demands for pain relief
Shouting and screaming
Slowing contractions
Heaving ‘show’
A period of dozing
Variable urge to bare down or push


Define latent second stage of labour

Cervix found to be fully dilated prior to involuntary expulsive contractions. Fetal head descends and rotates through pelvis


Define active second stage of labour

Fetal head visible -expulsive contractions occurring with signs of full dilatation
Active maternal effort at full dilatation in the absence of expulsive contractions


What are the expulsive signs of labour

Urge to push:
“Grunting” noises
Urge to poo
Perineal bulging and thinning
Anal “flowering”: pouting and dilating
Vagina gapes, and eventually the presenting part is visible
Rhombus of Michaelis: Rounding of the lower back
Discomfort under the ribs (anecdotal)


How do you prepare the room for delivery?

Warm linen/towels for the baby where possible
Check and set up the newborn resuscitation equipment
Prepare and check any medications that will be given at the birth
Birth pack on trolley


What items should be available on the birth trolley?

Plastic apron
Forceps for clamping the cord
Scissors for cutting the cord
Scissors for an episiotomy
A plastic cord clamp
Gauze swabs
Plastic bowls
Cord blood collection bottle and heparinised syringes and needles for cord gas collection if needed
Syringe and needle for oxytocic
Oxytocic: As per hospital policy
(10ml syringe and 20ml lignocaine 1% under trolley)
(If membranes not ruptured amnihook under trolley)


when to do obs in second stage?

As per hospital protocol
BP 1/24 | Maternal HR ½ hourly | Temp 2/24
Regularly empty bladder
Amniotic fluid: colour and odour
Contractions ½ hourly
Vaginal exams: PRN
Fetal heart rate (FHR) every 5 minutes, during and at least 30 seconds after a contraction
FHR monitoring if complicated birth, epidural or more than 1 hour active pushing with birth not imminent


When should you coach pushing in second stage?

Only coach pushing if:
Difficulty with effective pushing- epidural
Prolonged second stage
Non-reassuring fetal heart rate


What is the approximate time of first and second stage for a primigravida?

1st stage 12-14 hours
2nd stage 60 minutes


What is the approximate time of first and second stage for a multigravida?

1st stage 6-10 hours
2nd stage 30 minutes


What is the role of the placenta

The placenta sustains life delivering oxygenated blood, filtering fetal waste and carrying the -O2 back to maternal circulation for oxygenation via the umbilical cord.


What does the umbilical cord comprise of

Two umbilical arteries which convey deoxygenated blood to the maternal circulation.
One Umbilical Vein which conveys oxygenated blood from the mother to the baby.
Wharton’s Jelly –a tenacious jelly-like substance which cushions the umbilical vessels.


What are the two names given to the way the placenta is delivered

Shiny Schultz
Dirty Duncan


Describe active management of third stage

Give Syntometrine1 amp (primips) or Syntocinon10iu (multips) after birth of the anterior shoulder (Refer Policy)
Clamp and cut the cord.
Wait for signs of separation of the placenta:
-hand on the fundus to feel for contraction; fundus becomes hard and narrow
-trickle of blood vaginally
-lengthening of the cord


What do you do in an active third stage

Guard the uterus by placing hand above symphysispubis

Apply traction to the cord down towards the sacrum

When placenta is seen at introitus lift cord upwards.

•As widest diameter of placenta fills the vaginal entrance place hand below to catch placenta.

•If membranes are trailing rotate the placenta continually until membranes fall out.

•Check fundusand lochia.


What is involved in a physiological third stage

Delayed clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord to allow continued pulsation
Encourage baby to suck at breast to stimulate release of natural oxytocin
Encourage upright maternal posture and maternal effort to aid expulsion
Once placenta is visible at the vulva, the midwife may assist by lifting cord and collecting placenta
Controlled cord traction is NOT performed as this could lead to uterine inversion


What does APGAR stand for



When examining the placenta what are you looking for

Observe any malodour , healthy placenta almost odourless, feint alkaline smell.
Inspect membranes for completeness either complete or ragged.
Strip the amnion back from chorion to examine presence of both membranes -
Fetal surface examined –shiny, healthy, cord insertion site, no irregularities.
Maternal surface examined to ensure all lobes are present & for any abnormalities.
Cord examined for number of cord vessels, Whartons jelly, length & for any abnormalities


Define primary PPH

>500 ml blood loss or any blood loss sufficient to cause haemodynamic instability in 1st 24 hours after birth
Some say >1000ml (C/S)
Massive obstetric haemorrhage= >1500-2000 mls


Define secondary PPH

Abnormal/excessive bleeding 24/24 –6 weeks after birth


What are some of the antenatal PPH risk factors

Prev Hx PPH/retained placenta/MROP
Previous caesarean section
Grand multip>P4
Prolonged labour
Rapid or incoordinated labour
Over-distended uterus
Multiple pregnancy
APH (abruption)
Coagulation disorders
Uterine disorders


What are some of the intrapartum PPH risk factors

Prolonged third stage
Lacerations -cervical -vaginal -perineal
Assisted delivery -forceps =vacuum
Induced/ augmented labour
Retained products -Cotyledon -Succenturiate lobe -Membranes
Uterine rupture or inversion


How can we prevent a PPH

Treat anaemiaantenatally
•Avoid episiotomy
•Be prepared if risk factors present
•Have a plan for 3rdstage (? high risk)
•Actively manage third stage of labour
•Re-examine woman frequently after birth


What are the benefits of skin to skin for the neonate

Greater respiratory, temperature and Glucose stability
Causes release of Oxytocin
Decreases sensation of pain/ distress
Assists to identify maternal odour
Assists colonisation with maternal flora


What are the benefits of skin to skin for the mother

Increases release of Oxytocin
Hormone of bonding and attachment
Assists with Uterine Involution
Works synergistically with Endorphins
Cements feelings of love and nurture
Increased confidence with parenting
Longer breastfeeding rates


What are the initial postnatal observations for mum

Fundal height
•Lochia every 15 minutes initially
•BP •P •RR •Perineum 30 mins for 1st hour
Hourly for 2nd hour then
Four hourly

•Temp –once or hourly
30 mins for 1st hour
Hourly for 2nd hour then
Four hourly


What are the initial postnatal observations for baby

Respirations (30 –60)
•Colour (pink)
•Airway patent
Within the 1sthour
•Temp (36.5 –37.4)
•Heart Rate
•SaO2 on R wrist


What should be done after birth

Repairing the perineum
 Feeding the baby
 Food and drink
 Shower
 Bladder Care
 Hygiene and Comfort
 Obs
 Practical support


Responsibilities to the neonate straight after birth

Skin to skin
Breast feed
Cephalocaudal examination
Head circumference
Vitamin K


Some considerations after birth

Epidural removal
Suture technique
Shoulder dystocia form
IVI removal and fluid balance
Drug chart: ?antibiotics, analgesia


What documentation must be completed after birth

Fill in/sign the Medicare/ government financial benefits (Family Tax Benefit A & B, Maternity Payment (must be done within 26 weeks of birth).
Fill in the birth register
Fill in/sign the birth registration form
Enter STORK into computer


On postnatal ward what are the assessments required

Vital signs (temp, pulse, BP)
Uterine involution
Perineum and vulva
Urinary elimination
Bowel elimination
Breast care
Other…epidural site, iron levels, pelvis stability, physio needs


What is Involution?

Involution is the process by which the uterus returns to its normal size, tone and position. The ovaries and uterine tubes become pelvic organs again


How do you check the fundus postnatally?

Empty bladder
Gently palpate uterine fundus
Were membranes and placenta complete?
Educate woman (and family) on what to expect
Considerable variability has been found in the pattern of uterine involution experienced by women who have had a normal puerperium


What is normal involution?

Fundal height reducing daily by about 1 cm and is firm and central (and not palpable by day 10)
Lochia reducing and changing (rubra, serosa, alba)
Involution pains reducing and gone by day 3
No offensive discharge or pyrexia


Describe the different types of lochia

Discharge classified according to its appearance & contents
lochia rubra(red)
lochia serosa (pink)
lochia alba (white)


What is lochia and what is considered normal postnatally

Discharge heavier following rest periods due to pooling of lochia in the vagina
Amount may be increased due to exertion or breastfeeding
Type, amount & consistency of lochia reflects progress of placental site healing


Describe lochia rubra

Occurs first 2 -3 days
Dark/bright red in colour
Composition of blood -epithelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, shreds of decidua, & occasionally fetalmeconium, lanugo & vernixcaseosa
A few SMALL clots considered normal


Describe lochia serosa

From about the third to tenth day
Pinkish to brownish colour
Composed of serous exudate, shreds of degenerating decidua, erythrocytes, leukocytes, cervical mucous, numerous micro-organisms


Describe lochia alba

Gradual decrease in blood cell component to creamy yellowish discharge
Continues from about 10 days to up to 6 weeks
Composed of leukocytes, decidualcells, epithelial cells, fat, cervical mucous, cholesterol crystals & bacteria
When lochia stops cervix is closed


How to care for the perinium postnatally

•Diclofenac suppository after suturing
•Keep it clean and dry
•Crushed ice for 10 minutes 2 hourly
•2 baths or showers a day
•Pelvic floor exercises
•Physiotherapy for particularly swollen perinea
•Salt baths are not proven to be beneficial
•Manual support when bowels open


How to care for haemorrhoids postnatally

Fibre rich diet
Increased fluids
Pelvic floor exercises


Bladder care postnatally

Physiological diuresis
Bladder tone returns to normal in first week
Risk of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Assessment
Should void within 4-6 hours of birth
Normal: Sensation Flow Volume
Two consecutive voids 150-600mL
Is woman experiencing any pain or discomfort


Bowel care postnatally

Ask woman if she is experiencing any discomfort
Discuss any concerns


When is Anti D Given and why

Routine antenatal anti-D immunoglobulin prophylaxis (28 & 34wks)
Again within 72hrs of birth (after cord blood sent & maternal kliehauer sent following birth) if baby is Rh-pos or antibodies are detected in maternal blood. Or after any other sensitising event
This destroys any fetal cells in the mothers blood before her immune system produces antibodies


When and why is MMR given ?

Sero-negative for Rubella should be offered a MMR vaccination following birth and before discharge

Rubella during pregnancy associated with high risk of congenital abnormalities (Rubella Syndrome)

Probability of further pregnancy within the first 30 days postnatal is small therefore appropriate time to immunise


When and why is ADCEL given ?

Increase in whooping cough incidents in newborn infants and children
Contracted through an adult source
Program commenced to re-immunise adult population for whooping cough


Reproduction advise to be given

Return of menstruation by 6 weeks in the non-lactating woman
Lactating woman unpredictable
Ovulation may be delayed for 10 -12 weeks
Progesterone Only Pill (POP)
“You are never 100% safe”


What postnatal care is required for cesarean birth

Access to call bell
More frequent observations
Wound checking: Dressing in situ for 48 hours
Suture/staple/drain removal
No fundal checking
Deep breathing exercises
IV therapy?
IDC care
Epidural care
More assistance with baby care and feeding
Early ambulation and falls prevention (check legs before ambulating)
Education: reason for C/S, future pregnancies, lifting and driving


Care of the neonate on the ward

Rooming in
Vital signs –GBS?/ IVABs in labour/ CS
◦nappy changing
◦Umbilical cord care
Responding to Baby


What are the postpartum blues?

‘Normal’ condition in response to changing maternal hormonal levels
Tearful, sensitive about comments relating to baby or themselves
Occurs in first few days after birth ~ often around days 2-4
Treatment ~ support, reassurance & adequate sleep


What is postpartum psychosis

Incidence 1 :500 women
Occurs in first 4 weeks following birth
Syndrome characterized by delusions, being out of touch with reality, manic & depressed phases, paranoid, suicidal thoughts
Psychiatric emergency often requiring psychiatric hospitalization ~ ‘mother and baby unit’
Treatment ~ psychological therapies and medications including antipsychotics and mood stabilizers


What is postpartum depression?

Incidence 1:6 women
Increased risk for women with a previous history of depression or antenatal depression
Can start at birth or in the first few months post birth
Can be mild or severe
Feelings of inadequacy/unable to cope on more than half the days of the week
Tearfulness, irritability sleeplessness, low energy, suicidal thoughts
Treatment ~ as per depression


What do women need to know before going home

Visiting Midwifery Service
Community resources
Support groups
Child Health Nurse
Postnatal 6 week check


How often should you listen to the fetal heart rate in labour

15-30 mins for 1 min evey 5 mins in second stage


What do you listen for in fetal heartrate when using intermittent auscultation?

Baseline rate
•Periodic changes (accelerations and decelerations)


What is considered good variability in fetal heart rate?

If the doptone has a counter watch the rate per minute change. If there’s a difference of 5 beats over the 30 secs it demonstrates good variability


Why do we listen to FHR during a contraction

One of the goals of listening throughout the contraction and for a brief time after the contraction resolves is to identify variable and late decelerations of the FHR


what are the risk factors for changing to CTG monitoring

significant meconium-stained liquor,
•abnormal FHR detected by intermittent auscultation (less than 110 beats per minute [bpm]; greater than 160 bpm; any decelerations after a contraction)
•maternal pyrexia (defined as 38.0 °C once or 37.5 °C on two occasions 2 hours apart)
•fresh bleeding developing in labour
•oxytocinuse for augmentation
•the woman’s request


What are the reasons to use CTG monitoring in labour

•Previous abnormal antenatal CTG,
•Antepartum or intrapartum haemorrhage
•Prolonged rupture of membranes
•Prolonged pregnancy greater than 42 weeks
•Multiple pregnancy
•Breech presentation
•Diabetes –women on insulin, fetus is macrosomic or diabetes poorly controlled
•Prior uterine scar or previous Caesarean section
•Current or previous obstetric or medical condition which may pose a significant risk of fetal compromise
IOL with prostaglandins /oxytocin
• Abnormal auscultation –baseline less than 110, greater than 160 or decelerations
• Oxytocin augmentation
• Epidural
• Abnormal vaginal bleeding in labour
• Maternal pyrexia of 38°C or more
• Meconium or blood stained liquor
• Absent liquor
• Active first stage of labour greater than 12 hours (ie regular uterine activity, cervix 4 cm or more dilated)
• Active second stage (ie pushing) of greater than one hour when birth is not imminent
• Pre-term labour less than 37 completed weeks


What is neuraxial blockade?

the administration of analgesics into the spinal/epidural space. This gives a powerful analgesic effect.


What are women’s expectations around pain in

What are women’s expectations around pain in
• Background
• Peer influences
• Culture
• Geography
• Availability


How does an epidural work?

They work by blocking pain fibres as
they enter the spinal cord
• By directly blocking the pain fibres
epidurals can selectively block pain
• Selectively blocking pain fibres
decreases side effects


What is the Anatomy of the vertebrae

cervical x 7
thoracic x 12
Lumber x 5
Sacral x 5
coccygeal x 4


What is the Anatomy of the spinal ligaments

Supraspinous -strong and fibrous - thickest in lumbar region
• Interspinous - thin membranous - thickest in lumbar region
• Ligamentum flavum - the yellow ligament -comprises of elastic fibres - connects adjacent laminae of
• Longitudinal ligaments - the anterior and postierior
longitudinal ligaments bind the vertebral bodies together


What are the meninges

3 connective tissue layers that run around the spinal cord and brain offering protection and containing CSF.


What is the dura mater

the outermost layer - tough fibrous membrane continuous with the cerebral dura.


what is the arachnoid mater

the middle of the three coverings of the brain and spinal cord. It is a delicate non vascular layer of the meninges


what is the pia mater

delicate highly vascular membrane surrounding the spinal cord and brain


What are the spaces called in the meninges

epidural space, subdural space, subarachnoid space.


How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31 pairs of spinal nerves
attached by anterior and
posterior roots. These join and
exit the spine to form peripheral
nerves which supply a ‘segment’
of the body, known as


How many types of spinal nerves are there

3 types of nerves:
• Sensory
• Motor
• Autonomic (sympathetic)


What are sensory nerves responsible for

carry messages of touch, pressure, temperature and pain to the spinal cord


What are motor nerves responsible for

they carry messages to the muscles


What are autonomic nerves responsible for?

maintain venous and arterial tone
regulates autonomic tone - gastrointestinal, GIT and endocrine


What are the reasons for checking dermatomes

Unilateral block (only covering one side)
High block (above T4)
Low block (not covering incision/contractions)
Adequate block but still experiencing pain (requires larger opioid doses)


When to check dermatomes?

Prior to giving a bolus containing local anaesthetic and 20 minutes following the bolus
Prior to leaving the recovery room in theatre
Prior to increasing an epidural infusion rate containing local anaesthetic and 20
minutes following the increase
Poor pain control
If you suspect the block may be high
Three times in 24 hours (at the beginning of each shift)
Only when local anaesthetic is used


How to calculate Bromage score

1. sustains leg raise
2. can hip flex easily
3. can hip flex but overcome by gravity or pressure
4. can hip flex cant sustain flexion against gravity
5. cannot hip flex


what is Melatonin?

Endogenous Produced by the body
Concentrations peak during labour
Works synergistically with Oxytocin
Levels become increasingly higher towards the end of pregnancy
Post pregnancy levels return to normal
Facilitates rhythmical labour patterns
Peak concentrations at second stage
Affected by blue lights
Modulates other hormones Scavengers Free Radicals
Concentrations peak at night


what is Prostaglandin

Enhances the immune system
Is produced and affects tissues locally
Synthetic versions used to ripen cervix for labour
Appreciable amounts of this hormone found in Semen
Release is affected by Epidural Analgesia


What are Catecholamines

(Adrenaline/ Nor Adrenaline)
Secreted by the body in response to painful stimulus
Released by the Adrenal glands in response to SNS stimulation
Release of this hormone will inhibit production and release of oxytocin
Release will reduce blood flow to uterine muscles which can result in increased pain in labour
Fight or Flight Hormones divert blood flow to large muscle groups
Causes a raise in BP, Pulse


What is Prolactin

Neuroprotective mechanisms in Fetal Brains
Fathers and expectant fathers have higher levels of this hormone than celibate males
Responsible for Lactogenesis
Levels of this hormone naturally peak at night
Levels peak 1 -2 hours after birth
Increases REM sleep
Increase in apetite
Alteration of sleep wake cycle


What are Beta-Endorphins

Produces feelings of pleasure and joy
Similar molecular structure to Morphine. (translation means endogenous Morphine)
Can cause an altered state of consciousness
Release is stimulated by activation of Parasympathetic NS
‘Rest and Digest’
Works Synergistically with Oxytocin


Nitrous oxide and oxygen (N2O &O2) how does it work?

Acts by limiting the
neuronal and synaptic
transmission within the
central nervous system
thereby in hi biting pain
pathways in ~ brain


When should you seek help in pregnancy?

Abdominal pain or sudden onset of back pain
Baby is moving less than usual
If your 'waters' (liquor) break;
watery vaginal discharge
Urinary problems, including frequency or burning
when passing urine
Blurred vision
If you think labour has started
Vaginal bleeding
Swelling in your hands, feet and face first thing in the
Unusual headaches [severe/persistent]
Constant itching
Uncontrollable vomiting or diarrhoea, severe nausea
You are worried


When is discharge postnatally after SVD

Discharge home after a vaginal birth is usually within 4 - 24 hours after birth


When is discharge postnatally after cesarean section

Discharge home after a vaginal birth is usually within 4 - 24 hours after birth


How would you manage a lady with perineal trauma postnatally

Simple oral analgesia (paracetamol) +/-NSAID (if appropriate)
Cold compresses 10 mins every 2 hours
Hygiene avoid soaps/ perfumed products/ cotton underwear
Wash and pat dry
Change pad every 3 hours or as necessary
Wipe from front to back after toileting
Good bowel habits
Consider Physio referral
Teach PFE’s


which opioids can be given in labour?



What are the side effects of opiods

Respiratory depression
Drowsiness. dizziness
Mood changes
Mental clouding
Nausea & vomiting
Bradycardia and EEG changes.


What effects does morphine have on the fetus

Morphine acts as a vasoconstrictor of
the placental vasculature
•Morphine significantly lowered the
APGAR score
•Placental retention of morphine
prolongs fetal exposure to morphine
•Reduced FHR variability and acid-base

•Risk of respiratory depression and
•Decreased success with


What are the midwifery responsibilities when giving an opioid medication in labour

Informed consent required (side effects, risks and benefits to woman and baby)
Due consideration for potential risks and progress of labour (VE prior to administration may
be indicated)
Women should not enter water (birthing pool or bath) within 2 hrs of opioid administration
Caution in preterm labour- foetal metabolism
Any contraindications or allergies?
Ensure availability of opioid antagonist {Naloxone)
Consider anti-emetic
Follow institution guidelines reschedule 8 medications
Record and document maternal (and fetal) observations. e.g.
RR hourly
BP hourly
Urinary output(? Retention)


what are the pharmacological interventions for pain in labour

Nitrous oxide and oxygen can be an effective analgesic for labouring women
particularly in early labour
Opioids in labour can provide relatively adequate analgesia but knowledge
of side effects and risks are important
Epidural analgesia can provide excellent pain relief for labouring women and
may increase their satisfaction with their birth experience
Epidurals can increase the chances of interventions and
instrumental/operative births


In which clinical situations would an episiotomy be performed?

To Speed Up a Prolonged Labor when there is fetal distress
During Assisted Vaginal Delivery
Breech Presentation and use of forceps
Delivery of Large Babies - shoulder dystocia
Patients with Previous Pelvic Surgery - FGM, previous episiotomy
Abnormal Position of the Baby's Head - face presentation
Delivery of Twins


Describe the rationale(s) for the timing of an episiotomy.

The perinium should be bulging and the baby iminent within 2-4 contractions as this reduces risk of lacerations and unnecessary blood loss


What are the possible short term and long term problems that may be associated with episiotomy?

urinary incontinence, anal incontinence, sexual dysfunction
Short-term side effects include pain and swelling of the episiotomy site. Over the long term, an episiotomy can contribute to a condition called dysparunia, or painful intercourse, as well as pelvic floor weakness, which can lead to difficulty controlling your urine or stool.


what is the role of a child health nurse

•care for Babies and young children up to the age of
4 years.
• assess baby and child health development
• provide ongoing support for families
• Growth and nutrition guidance
• act as a link between hospitals and the community
• working with family GPs and other health professionals
• Education is provided to help parents understand their baby and have realistic expectations


How is the role of the father viewed

Breadwinner, protector, discipline
Support Mum during pregnancy
The “fun” parent – play and humour
Less competent parent – around the house
Main focus on Mum by parenting services


Why Engage Fathers?

Coparenting - Focus on the Mother and Father
Parenting Relationship

The need of children to be stimulated, pushed
and encouraged to take risks is as great as
their need for stability and security. (father role)

Children need to learn to deal with unexpected

Expectant fathers who have a strong desire to participate in their partner’s pregnancy can be left
disillusioned when they are not acknowledged by health professionals


What are dads expectations of the birth

emotionally connected to their child.
To feel involved and useful at the birth.
Practical information on caring for a newborn.
Encourage and acknowledge role as Dad
More information about changes after birth.
Strategies to help with changes in relationship after birth


What might be barriers to Dads engaging in
family support services?

Help seeking behaviour
Conflict with work.
Dads perceptions of the service – For Mums?
Previous negative experiences.
Staff attitudes
Staff inexperienced working with men


What are the three types of immunity?

Anatomical (saliva, cilia)
•Innate (acute inflammation)
•Adaptive (production of antibodies or specific cells recognise and destroy pathogens)


What is herd immunity?

The proportion of people in a community with immunity to a specificinfectious disease.

•Decision to vaccination affects everyone


Why immunise

immunisation is second only to clean water as the public health intervention with the greatest global impact.
•Immunisation is one of the most successful and cost effective health interventions ever


What is the Midwives role in immunisation?

Antenatal vaccines added to schedule
•Midwife may be first health professional to discuss vaccination with new parents
•Birth dose Hep B administered by Midwives in hospital
•Health providers have great impact on client’s decision making


If planning a pregnancy what immunisations should you have?

Should be fully immunised against:
–Varicella (chickenpox)
–Measles, mumps and rubella
–Hepatitis B


Which immunisations should a pregnant woman have?

Recommended for all women at any stage Particularly those in 2nd or 3rd trimester during flu season

Recommended for all women Single dose
During 3rd trimester (28-32 weeks)


Why should women have the influenza jab in pregnancy?

•Higher risk of serious complications
–Pneumonia and cardiopulmonary events
–All trimesters, but particularly later in pregnancy
•Depressed cell-mediated immunity
–Less able to clear influenza infection
•Reduced tidal volume and increased cardiac output
–Less able to handle cardiopulmonary stress of respiratory infections


Why is pertusis given in pregnancy?

Pertussis can be very serious (potentially lethal) in young babies under 6 months of age
–90% of hospital admission for pertussis are in infants <6 months


How does maternal vaccination protect the unborn baby?

Passive Immunity
•Antibodies travel across the placenta from the mother’s blood to the growing baby’s blood
•While babies’ immune system is developing, they are protected by antibodies from their mother
•Babies may not be fully protected by vaccines until 6 months


When are pregnancy vaccines given?

–Seasonal influenza vaccine can be given in any trimester of pregnancy.
–Preference near when flu is circulating in community, but should be provided throughout season.
–Pertussis vaccine is recommended as a single dose during the third trimester of each pregnancy.
–The optimal time for vaccination is between 28 and 32 weeks gestation, but the vaccine can be given at any time during the third trimester up to delivery.
–Recommended every pregnancy to provide maximal protection to infant –this includes pregnancies which are closely spaced.


Which vaccines are given after pregnancy?

MMR and varicella if found to be low during pregnancy


On admission to labour ward what should be discussed?

Positioning for labour and birth
• The role and responsibility of the care providers
• Who will be present for the birth?
• Eating and drinking during labour
• The use of cameras and video recordings
• The use of music or other therapies
• The use of and availability of pain relieving methods
• The use of intermittent and electronic fetal heart rate monitoring
• The use of any intervention in the labour and birth process
• Care during the actual birth of the baby – including care of the perineum, the use of an oxytocic
for the third stage, cutting the cord
• What will happen to the baby after the birth?


What are non pharmacological interventions for pain in labour?

• Water immersion
• Complementary therapies
• One-to-one support
• Breathing and distraction techniques


What are the circulatory changes in the newborn at birth?

The shunting mechanisms of the fetal circulation begin to change as the baby is born and the low pressure placental circulation begins to shut down.

As the newborn takes it’s first few breaths, the high vascular resistance of the pulmonary
vessels falls, allowing blood flow to the lungs to increase. The shunting of blood through the ductus
arteriosus continues to occur for a few hours following birth but as pulmonary pressures increase and
stabilise in the first few days of life, and placental prostaglandin levels fall, the shunting of blood
gradually decreases and the duct closes.


What are the essential components to transition to extra-uterine life?

• Circulatory adaptation
• Pulmonary adaptation
• Thermal adaptation
• Endocrine adaptation
• metabolic adaptation


Describe circulatory changes in the newborn

Closure of the occurs soon after
birth, permanent closure may take a couple of months.
•Clamping of the cord equalizes pressure in the
right and left chambers of the heart
• Increase in blood supply to the pulmonary
• Functional and then permanent closure of the
shunting mechanisms ( Ductus Venosus, Ductus Arteriosus, Foramen Ovale)
• Umbilical vein and arteries occlude
• Direction and pressures of blood flow and heart
workload alter to resemble that of the
permanent human circulatory system


What are the stimuli to start breathing at birth

• Squeezing and recoil of the thorax
• Catecholamine release
• Rise in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and a ‘physiological asphyxia’ of a fall in the blood pH which stimulate the respiratory centre
• Replacement of fluid with air in lungs
• Fall in environmental temperature
• Tactile and sensory stimulation
• Clamping and cutting of the umbilical cord
• Reflexes – Heads paradoxical reflex, Hering Breuer reflex


What are the pulmonary changes at birth

•0 Infant is squeezed through the birth canal
• Physiological asphyxia stimulates gasping on
release from birth canal
• Lung fluid is squeezed out and chest wall
• Release of surfactant
• Air replaces lung fluid
• Heads paradoxical reflex - air entering
bronchi stimulates reflex gasping
• Hering Breuer reflex – stretch receptors
operate and infant exhales


Explain thermoregulation in the newborn infant

Heat production in the newborn occurs via a process of non-shivering thermogenesis which is
characterised by:
• The metabolism of brown fat (in the upper spine, clavicles and the mediastinum), adipose tissue
deposits that are unique to newborn infants
• An increase in the metabolic rate


How can the midwife ensure thermoregulation at birth

Ensure the environment is warm (at least 20 degrees) and free of draughts
• Encourage immediate and close skin to skin contact between mother and newborn at birth – or
dad if mother is unable to hold baby
• Perform any resuscitation or examination of the newborn under the warmth of a radiant heat
• Encourage early initiation of infant feeding
• Ensure the baby is dry and adequately covered - consider covering the head of the baby initially
(beware of overheating though)
• Whenever possible, use prewarmed towels, clothes and wrappings for the baby
• Delay bathing the baby until the temperature is stable


what are the gastrointestinal changes in the newborn

Reflexes enable baby to suck and feed
Co-ordination of suck, swallow and breathe quickly learned
Meconium passed until day 3
Colonisation of GIT with normal gut flora days 3 – 7
Production of Vitamin K dependent clotting factors
Initial weight loss generally regained by end of second week
Limited gastric capacity – 20 - 30 ml initially


What are the hepatic changes in the newborn?

Utilisation of stored glycogen to
maintain blood glucose levels within 2.5 – 7 mmol/L
Closure of ductus venosus to allow
increase blood flow to liver
Blood cells formed in bone marrow
Slow metabolism of drugs


What are the renal changes in the newborn?

Initial low level of renal function at birth:
o Low glomerular filtration rate
o Limited anti-diuretic hormone
o Low renal threshold leads to loss
of amino acids and bicarbonate
Newborn adapts quickly


what are the physiological changes a newborn makes to extrauterine life?

adjusting to and maintaining respiration
adjusting to circulatory changes
regulating temperature
ingesting and digesting nutrients
eliminating waste and regulating weight


what are the behaviourl changes a newborn makes to extrauterine life?

self regulating waking and patterns of sleep
processing multiple stimuli
establish a relationship with care givers in the environment


what is expected from a neonate in the first thirty minutes of birth?

increased heart rate irregular, amount of breaths,
some crackles on auscultation and signs of WOB


what is expected from 60 -100 minutes of birth in the neonate?

period of decreased responsiveness
HR regular
RR around 60
pink in colour.


what is expected from 2 - 8 hours post birth in the neonate?

mech passed
increased muscle tone
changes in skin colour
mucus production.


What are the four ways a newborn can lose temperature to the environment



What should you note prior to examining the newborn?

• Maternal details – including health history, social situation and family history
• Obstetric history – previous pregnancy, birth and newborn details
• Antenatal history for this pregnancy
• Details of the labour and birth
• Details of the immediate post-birth period – including Apgar scores and any resuscitation
measures or other interventions


When looking at general appearance of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

• Breathing pattern and rate – are there any signs of respiratory difficulty?
• Muscle activity – any tremors, jitteriness, seizures?
• Muscle tone – poor tone (‘floppy’) or marked tone/flexion.
• Body proportions and symmetry of movements.
• Any obvious malformations or dysmorphic features?
• Colour – mottled, pale, plethoric, cyanosed, jaundiced.
• Skin/integument – vernix or lanugo, meconium, birthmarks, petechiae, oedema.
• Cry – vigorous, weak, high-pitched.
• Indicators of prematurity (refer to your textbook for the Ballard Scale)


When looking at the Head/Skull of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

•Size and shape – presence of moulding.
• Suture lines, fontanelles.
• Caput succedaneum, chignon, cephalhaematoma, or other lesions/trauma.
• Hair.


When looking at the Facial Features of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

•Proportions and symmetry.
• Ears – position, structure, cartilage, skin tags.
• Eyes – number, size, iris, pupil, lids, discharge, red reflex.
• Mouth – size, shape, lips, palate, tongue, teeth.
• Nose – position, nostrils, bridge, septum, milia.


When looking at the musculoskeletal system of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

• Neck – movement, tumours, hairline, webbing.
• Clavicle.
• Spine – shape, dimples, hair, tumours.
• Sacrum, coccyx.
• Limbs – number, length, proportions, fractures, creases.
• Digits – number, length, proportions, shape, webbing, palmar creases,
• Hips – Barlow, Ortolani tests for congenital dislocation of the hip.
• Feet – talipes.


When looking at the respiratory system of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

• Symmetry and chest appearance – nipple position.
• Hyperinflation, structural deformity.
• Respiratory difficulty - sternal or rib recession, tachypnoea, nasal flaring, expiratory grunt, cyanosis.


When looking at the cardiovascular system of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

• Colour, perfusion.
• Heart rate.
• Irregularities or murmurs.
• Pulses


When looking at the abdomen of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

• Any distension.
• Bladder distension.
• Localised bulging or palpable masses.
• Tenderness.


When looking at the umbilicus of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

• Cord – 2 arteries, 1 vein.
• Cord clamp secure.
• Structure – any hernia or abnormality of the midline


When looking at the Genitourinary system of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

• Identification of sex of baby – male, female, indeterminate/ambiguous.
• Abnormalities of genitalia.
• Anus – patent, passing meconium.
• Urinary output.


When looking at the neurological system of a neonate in the cephlacordal what should be considered

• Symmetry of movement.
• Muscle tone, presence of seizures.
• Sleeping, waking, crying behaviours.
• Reflexes – Grasp, Rooting, Sucking, Moro, Step, Babinski.


What does the Gutherie test explore?

• Phenylketonuria (PKU)
• Galactosemia
• Congenital hypothyroidism
• Cystic fibrosis
• Amino acid disorders
• Fatty acid oxidation disorders
• Organic acid disorders


What should midwives ensure new mothers know about when discharging them.

• The physical care of the newborn – bathing, changing nappies, dressing, care of the umbilical cord, eye care, skin care.
• Expected patterns of weight gain.
• Normal expected newborn behaviours – including elimination patterns, sleeping and settling patterns, crying.
• Feeding – this will be covered separately in another module of this unit.
• Safety – this includes information regarding SIDS.
• Signs of illness in the newborn.
• Visiting midwife (where available) – role and contact details.
• Ongoing care schedules and contact details – child health nurse, general practitioner, other
community resources.
• Advice regarding the Australian immunisation schedule


What are the SUDI risk factors for an infant under 4 months of age

Low birth weight
Health problems
Tobacco smoke exposure
Cough/cold medicines
Decreased tone/reflexes


What are the parental SUDI risk factors when caring for an infant under 4 months of age

Either parent/carer smoking
Extreme tiredness
Medications (alter consciousness)
Conditions affecting mobility and sensory awareness
Conditions causing temporary loss of consciousness
Drug and alcohol use


What are the environmental SUDI risk factors when caring for an infant under 4 months of age

Prone/side sleep position
Unsafe sleep environment:
 multiple bed sharers
 co-sleeping
 soft or sagging sleep surface
Environmental tobacco smoke
Other children/pets


What is physiological jaundice

A visible yellow discolouration of the skin of an otherwise healthy newborn
• Occurs due to the increased level of haemolysis in the newborn of red blood cells, and the reabsorption of bilirubin into the enterohepatic re-circulation as a
result of decreased gut motility.
• May be worsened by such problems as bruising and polycythaemia, where there are extra red blood cells to be haemolysed.


What are the six key messages to reinforce safe infant sleeping are adapted from SIDS and KIDS WA:

1. Sleep baby on back*
2. Keep baby’s head and face uncovered
3. Keep baby smoke free before and after birth
4. Safe sleeping environment night and day
5. Sleep baby in a safe cot in parent’s room
6. Breastfeed baby**


Define SIDS

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is defined
as the sudden and unexpected death of an
infant less than one year of age during their
sleep that remains unexplained after a thorough


What is considered as an unsafe sleep surface

 is NOT firm (i.e. soft or sagging such as mattresses, pillows, waterbeds, sheepskins, a couch, or beanbag)
 is tilted, dirty or damaged
 the mattress and/or bed sheets are incorrectly fitted (e.g. mattress/bed sheets are the wrong size for cot,
portacot or bassinet)
 has or creates gaps where baby can become trapped (e.g. couch or mattress against a wall)
 risk of infant falling and causing injury


Define ‘Breast Milk’ jaundice

• Breastfed babies receive a decreased volume of milk through the bowel in the early days of life, resulting in an increase in reabsorption of bilirubin through the entero-hepatic circulation
• There is also a theory that inhibitory substances present in breast milk prolong jaundice in breastfed babies


How does the midwife decide if it is physiological jaundice over pathological jaundice?

• Gestation of the baby at birth
• The maternal blood group and presence of antibodies or other risk factors
• Any other factors, such as bruising or cephalhaematoma (that would lead to greater haemolysis of red blood cells)


If a baby has jaundice up to the head what recommendations should the midwife make?

• Encourage frequent feeding - 8-9 breastfeeds in 24 hours is optimal or increase number of formula feeds if artificially feeding
• Monitor the infants input and output


When is phototherapy used

A midwife checks SBR and age of infant and then
if Age of baby in hours Consider phototherapy if
SBR level at or above
25 – 48 hours 170 m mol/L
49 – 72 hours 260 m mol/L
More than 72 hours 290 m mol/L


what resources are there for new dads?

Beyond blue section - section for dads

Ngala runs free Parenting Workshops for WA families.
A monthly workshop for new dads with children aged 0 to 5 years.

beerandbubs.com.au/ Childbirth classes in Perth: for men

http://dadskills.com/ online dad classes

Dad2Dad .thebumpwa.org.au men only work shop