Mid term #1 Flashcards Preview

Bio Anthropology > Mid term #1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mid term #1 Deck (63):
1

Anthropology

The study of humankind, viewed from the perspectives of all people and all times

2

What are the 4 subfields of Anthropology?

1) Cultural
2) Archaeology
3) Linguistics
4) Physical/Biological Anthropology

3

Scientific Method

Basically having a hypothesis and testing it. Then strengthening your hypothesis based on your conclusion.

4

Linnaeus

Presented the binomial nomenclature taxonomy of plants and animals.

5

Lamarck

Presented first serious model of physical traits passing from parent to offspring

6

Covier

Revealed a lot in fossils

7

Lyell

Provided geological old evidence

8

Maltus

Provided the first survival of the fittest

9

Erasmus Darwin

Advanced the idea that physical changes happened in the past

10

Cultural Anthropology

The study of modern human societies through the analysis of the origins, evolution,and variation of culture

11

Archaeology

The study of historic of prehistoric human populations through the analysis of material remains

12

Linguistics

The study of the construction, use, and form of language in human population

13

Biological/Physical Anthropology

The study of the evolution, variation, and adaptation of humans and their past and present relatives.

14

Sociolinguistics

The science of investigating languages social contexts

15

Forensic Anthropology

Examining skeletons to identify whose bodies they came from

16

Biocultural Approach

Study of the relationship between what humans have inherited genetically and culturally

17

Hominin

Humans and humanlike ancestors

18

Genome

The complete set of genetic information-Chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA- for an organism or species that represents all of the inheritable traits

19

Primates

A group of mammals in the order Primates that have complex behavior, varied forms of locomotion. and a unique suite of traits, including large brains, forward facing eyes, fingernails, and resourced snouts.

20

Bipedalism

Walking on two feet

21

Nonhoning Canine

An upper canine that. as part of a nonhoning chewing mechanism, is not sharpened against the lower third premolar

22

Material Culture

The part of culture that is expressed as objects that humans use to manipulate environments

23

Social Learning

The capacity to learn from other humans, enabling the accumulation of knowledge across many generations

24

Data

Evidence gathered to help answer questions, solve problems, and fill gaps in scientific knowledge

25

Hypotheses

Testable statements that potentially explain specific phenomena observed in the natural world

26

Empirical

Verified through observation and experiment

27

Theory

A set of hypothesis that have been validated and tested, leading to their establishment as generally accepted explanations of science

28

Anatomical

Pertaining to an organisms physical structure

29

Arboreal

Adapted to living in trees

30

Terrestrial

Life-forms, including humans, that live on land versus living in water or in trees

31

Morphology

Physical shape and appearance

32

Scientific Law

A statement of fact describing natural phenomena

33

Species

A group of related organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring

34

Adaptations

Changes in physical structure, function, or behavior that allow and organism or species to survive and reproduce in a given environment

35

Natural Selection

The process by which some organisms, with features that enable them to adapt to the environment, preferentially survive and reproduce, thereby increasing the frequency of those features in the population

36

Adaptive Radiation

The diversification of an ancestral group of organisms into new forms that are adapted to specific environmental niches

37

Geology

The study of Earths physical history

38

Paleontology

The study of extinct life-forms through the analysis of fossils

39

Taxonomy

The classification of organisms into a system that reflects degree of relatedness

40

Systematics

The study and classification of living organisms to determine their evolutionary relationships with one another

41

Demography

The study of a populations features and vital statistics, including birth rate, death rate, population size, and population density

42

Evolutionary Biology

A specialty within the field of biology; the study of the process of change in organisms

43

Uniformitarianism

The theory that processes that occurred in the geologic past are still at work today

44

Catastrophism

Catastrophic events (volcanoes, earthquake, tsunamis), rather than evolutionary processes, are responsible for geological change throughout Earths history

45

Lamarckism

theory of evolution through the inheritance of acquired characteristics in which an organism can pass on features acquired during its lifetime (false theory)

46

Genmules

Units of inheritance accumulated in the gametes so they could be passed on to offsprings

47

Blending Inheritance

Phenotypes of the parents blended into the offsprings phenotype (false theory)

48

Gene

Basic unit of inheritance; a sequence of DNA on a chromosome, coded to produce a specific protein

49

Allele

One or more alternative forms of a gene

50

Dominant

The dominant allele is present

51

Recessive

The recessive allele is masked

52

Mendelian Inheritance

The basic principles associated with the transmission is genetic material, forming the basis of genetics, including the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment

53

Genotype

Genetic makeup of an organism; the combination of alleles for a given gene

54

Phenotype

Physical expression of the genotype; it may be influenced by environment

55

Chromosomes

The strand of DNA found in the nucleus that contains thousands of genes

56

Mutation

Only source of new variation in a species and completely random

57

What are the Four mechanisms of evolution

1) Mutation
2) Genetic Drift
3) Gene Flow
4) Natural Selection

58

Gene flow

Only source of new variation in a population because of interbreeding

59

Genetic Drift

Random change in allele frequencies from one generation to next (mainly small populations)

60

Prokaryotes

Single-cell organisms with genetic material as a single strand

61

Eukaryotes

Multicelled organisms that have a nucleus with genetic material and specialized organelles

62

Somatic Cells

Diploid cells that form the organs, tissues, and other parts of the body

63

Gametes

Sexual reproductive cells like sperm and eggs