Midterm 1 Flashcards Preview

Political Science > Midterm 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (53):
1

Homeland Security

Government response after 9/11 created by Bush Administration

2

Size of Government

Enormous institution effecting every aspect of an American's daily life

3

Political Efficacy

Belief citizens can affect government

4

Citizenship

Informed, political

5

Government

Formal institutions and procedures through which a land and its people are ruled

6

Constitutional Government

Limits placed on government

7

Politics

Conflicts and struggles over leadership, struggles, and policies of governments

8

Direct Democracy

People vote directly

9

Representative Democracy

Representatives vote for the people

10

American Values

Not always upheld by the government (like Slavery)

11

Liberty

Complete freedom from governmental control (based on limited government)

12

Bill of Rights

First 10 Amendments of Constitution demanded by Antifederalists who were weary of new Constitution; there was a price for ratification

13

"One person, one vote"

Political equality

14

Declaration of Independence

1776: remarkable, philosophical document for its time as it asserted people have "unalienable rights" that could not be abridged by government

15

Shay's rebellion

1787: Goal to help poor farmers in Western Massachusetts; prevent court from repossessing debt-ridden lands; showed how weak the gov't was under AofC so this served as a focal point for the Constitutional Convention

16

The Great Comprimise

Settled debate about representation during the constitutional convention in 1787 (Big vs small states) and resulted in a bicameral legislative branch, giving small states representation in the Senate and big states representation based on population in the House of Representatives

17

Bicameralism

Two Chambers or Houses

18

Checks and Balances

Mechanisms through which each branch of gov't influences other branches activities so that no branch becomes too powerful (Pres veto Congress)

19

Separation of Powers

Division of gov'tl power among several institutions that must cooperate in decision-making; Framers employed this (& Federalism) to Constitution

20

Senatorial Reelection

Every 2 years, 1/3 of Senate members' terms expire & get replaced. Staggered terms protect Senate from popular pressure

21

Three Branches of Government

Legislative, Executive, Judicial

22

Supremacy Clause

Constitution and Federal laws are superior to state laws; Article VI Congress "Law of the Land"

23

Federalists/Antifederalists

Federalists: Support Constitution, strong nat'l gov't, and fear tyranny from popular majority
Antifederalists: Oppose Constitution; state gov't, alternatives to Constitution

24

Federalism

National gov't shares power with lower levels of gov't by a constitution

25

10th Amendment

"Reserved powers" Serves to limit central gov't by reserving powers for states

26

Concurrent Powers

Powers shared by federal government to regulate trade & currency (like taxes)

27

Full Faith & Credit Clause

Requires states to honor the public acts, records, and judicial decisions that take place in another state (like gay marriage)

28

American Federalism

Contributed to political stability & longevity of government by allowing many policy decisions to be made by states!

29

Great Depression

Most influential in the rise of a more active government through federal relief and work programs

30

Supreme Court's Interpretation of Federalism

Power to the states [through process of devolution] & limitation of federal power

31

Cooperative Federalism

Replacing Dual federalism with national & state & cooperation

32

Regulated Federalism

With increased funding, federal government demanded higher standards & stricter uses for funds

33

Devolution

Transferring responsibility from federal government to state and local government; Led to new Federalism; Popular in 1970s

34

"Incorporation" of Bill of Rights to the States

Protections in Bill of Rights applied to states using 14th Amendment

35

Fourteenth Amendment

Constitutional basis for nationalizing Bill of Rights; forced states to abide by Bill of Rights

36

The Establishment Clause

1st Amendment “wall of separation“ between church and state

37

Strict Scrutiny

Places a heavy burden of proof on the government if it seeks to regulate or restrict speech to show that the law in question is constitutional

38

Political Speech

The most consistently protected form of speech; Protected unless it leads to immediate harm

39

Clear and Present Danger test

Test to determine whether speech is protected or unprotected, based on its capacity to present a "clear and present danger' to society

40

17 Expressed powers including these 4

lay and collect taxes
borrow money
regulate commerce
declare & conduct a war

41

5 groups that conflicted over issues of taxation, trade, commerce

New England merchants
Southern planters
Royalists
Shopkeepers, artisans, laborers
Small farmers

42

Substantive liberties

Limits on WHAT gov't has the power to do

43

Procedural liberites

Limits in HOW gov't is supposed to act

44

Civil liberties

Areas at personal freedom that gov'ts are constrained from interfering

45

Affirmative action

Gov't policies or programs that seek to address past discrimination by providing them access to educational & employment opportunities

46

Speech with limited protection

Libel & Slander
Obscenity & pornography
Fighting words
Commercial speech
Public school children

47

De jure

Legally enforced practices "by law"

48

De facto

Practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement "by fact"

49

Speech plus

Speech accompanied by conduct sit-ins, picketing, demonstrations

50

Exclusionary rule

Ability of courts to exclude evidence obtained in violation of 14th amendment

51

Ex post facto law

Laws that declare an action to be illegal after it has been committed

52

Due process of law

The right of every citizen against arbitrary action by national or state gov'ts

53

Necessary & proper clause

Implied powers