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Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (40):
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Public opinion

Attitudes

1

Political socialization

Process through which underlying political beliefs are formed

2

Agencies of political socialization

• Family (most influential)
• education
• social groups (religion)
• political environment

3

Gender gap

The tendency of men's and women's opinions to differ

4

Political ideology

A set of complex beliefs and values that has a whole, form a general philosophy about government

5

Conservative

Support social and economic status, oppose government involvement with business, support school prayer

6

Liberal

Favors individual initiative, suspicious of governments and their ability to manage economic and social affairs. Expansion of government

7

Polling Sample

Small group selected by researchers

8

Question wording

By the way a sentence is phrased it can have an impact on your answers and greatly affect the poll's results (i.e. gov't assistance vs. welfare)

9

Government policy

Even though there is no one-to-one correlation between public opinion and the policy decisions made on public's behalf, studies generally do suggest that elected officials pay attention to the preferences of the public

10

Television

Reaching more Americans than any other single news source; provides the least amount of depth in news coverage

11

Newspapers

Mainly used to influence politicians
Mostly facts; unbiased
Set agenda
Not popular

12

Corporate consolidation

75% of media

13

Media influence

Lies in their ability to shape Americans decisions and opinions about issues in politics (framing & priming)

14

Agenda setting

•1st source of media power
•Bring issues & probs to public attention
•Selection bias

15

FCC

Federal communications commissoon

16

Government and the media

Fed gov't doesn't own media but regulates broadcast media

17

Proliferation of news sources

Encourages polarization cuz many media outlets seek to position themselves within a specific ideology

18

A free media

•Sheds light on matters that may be unknown
•Publicize and explain gov't actions
•Evaluate politicians

19

Political party

Organize groups that attempt to influence gov't by electing their members to important gov't offices

20

Party systems

For most of US history 2 major parties have had enough of an organize presence to compete in elections

21

Incumbent

Candidates running for reelection to positions they already hold

22

Realignments

• When one party dominates another politically
• occurs when new issues are combined with economic and political crises

23

Divided Government

Where presidency is controlled by one party while other party controls one or both houses of Congress

24

Party identification

An individual voters psychological times to one party or another
• most important que as to how to vote in elections

25

Turnout

Percentage who actually vote

26

Non-electoral participation

Time money effort
Internet makes this easier

27

Socioeconomic status

Level of education, income, occupational

28

Factors influencing voters

1. Partisan loyalty
2. Issues/policy concerns
3. Candidate characteristics

29

Closed primary

Only if you're a member & registered voter

30

State and local government

Have responsibility of conducting elections

31

Pluralism

•Citizens connect to the gov't through interest groups
• theoretical assumption competition will create balance

32

Types of interest groups

1. Business & agriculture
2. Labor union
3. Professional
4. Ideological
5. Public-sector
6. Public interest

33

Membership

Typically those with more education and income

34

Increased number of interest groups

Response to increase in the size of activity of gov't

35

Lobbying

Pressure members of Congress

36

Iron triangle

Executive branch
Senate or House
Interest group

37

Ligitation strategy

Use of courts to affect public-policy in three ways:
1. Group brings their own suit
2. Financing for person's suits
3. Filing a companion brief as an amicus curiae (friend of the court)

38

Political action committee

Most common and electoral strategy interest groups use, giving financial support to parties or candidate

39

Issue advocacy

They can spend as much money as long as they do not collaborate with candidate