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What is psychology about?

Science of behavior; why; defining the line between normal and abnormal


Brain is programmed for...



What is the difference between addiction and dependence?

Dependence = missing it when not available
Addiction = physiological symptoms


Psychology vs psychiatry?

Psychiatry is about patients being danger for themselves or society (medical model)


Major forces among behavior (2)?

Genetics and environment


Name two types of psychology?

Popular psychology (self-help books, Dr. Phil..); physiological; behavioral; cognitive; psychodynamic; humanistic; socio-cultural; evolutionary


Name of the phenomenon from which we use numbers to describe what goes on?

Empirical basis


Questions answered by the Greeks?

Who are we?


Questions answered by christianity and church?

Everything comes from God


What is phrenology (1750)?

Psychology based on structure of skull


Who first did lab experiments on behavior?

Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)


What did Darwin bring to psychology?

Evolutionary perspectives: behavior adaptation


Name a few approaches during 20th c.?

Feud, Skinner, Humanism, Evolutionary, Physiological, Behavioral, MRI


Physiological/Biological approach: describe

Biological processes influence directly behavior. Everything is about brain chemistry and physiology. For example, depression is genetic vulnerability.


What is behavioral/learning approach?

"Only observable events can be scientifically studied"; all about conditioning and environment, we are mold from it; we learn by imitation; reinforcement and punishment


What is cognitive approach?

Behavior is a function of mental processes: PERCEPTIONS. It induces self-hurting, depression, self-concept thinking. It is all about information processing.
Jean Piaget worked with children.


Freudian or psychodynamic approach?

Iceberg model of personality: Conscious, preconscious (didnt mean to say that) and unconscious.
With preconscious, you have ego, which tempers Id (basal drives) with rationalization.
With Unconscious, you have Id and Superego, which is the parental authority, culture influences..


Describe stages within the id

1- oral (first 18 months): breastfeeding leads to eating issues
2- Anal (18m - 3y): Learn to go to toilet leads to hygienic and order issues
3- Phallic (3-6y): true sexual apparition, little girls found out missing penis.. issues with a "men world"
4- Latency (6y to puberty)
5- Genital (puberty)


Behavior with Freudian approach?

Gratification = need was met, fixation = no satisfied need : you go to what you are missing
Defense mechanisms are a rationalization of deception


Humanistic perspectives in short

Everybody is different: free will, unlimited potential. That explains self-concept and culpability (how you figure out yourself and how you just acted). Empathy is therapy, you are fundamentally good.
Maslow's pyramid: physiological - safety - love + belongness + self esteem + self actualization (self-help books)


Socio-cultural psychology

About your origins and your culture: it explains why you act the way you do. Look for gender, lifestyle, sexual orientation, income level.
Acculturation phenomenon can be really stressful; leads to cross-culture country.
Depression is linked to poverty and unemployement.


Evolutionary perspectives

Inherited tendancies: our behavior is about our old middle age reflex and from our relatives that could reproduce (products of sexual/natural selection)


Why applicating a Sc. methods?

Assess claim and make a decision


What is an hypothesis?

A directional guess about outcomes


What is a theory?

May or may not hold truth, but still is a tested hypothesis


What is an operational definition?

A word put in context to confirm its meaning through a specific context. Eg.: intelligence


What is a case study?

A patient interviewed by psychologist(s); it is a profile, it can't be generalized


What is an observational study?

Leads to generalization but needs many "lookers" to prevent error; it can be naturalistic or in laboratory
Issues: observer bias (many lookers; independent) and observer effect (acting in a non natural way)


How to do a survey?

RANDOM, 10 to 20% to be representative; open-ended questions can be an issue, use like scale


Two types of studies: longitudinal and cross-sectional

Longitudinal: same subjects over a period of time
Reliable but time and money; subject attrition
Ideal for babies (they change rapidly)

Cross-sectionnal: Sample from different ages
Unlikely to be reliable because assumptions are needed