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The quality of sound, as a distinct pitch; also known as tone color.

Timbre

1

The simultaneous use of contrasting rhythms; also known as rhythmic contrast.

Polyrhythm

2

Continuous, unchanging patterns whose very repetition provides a framework for a musical piece.

Foundation Layers

3

Contrasting parts played above the foundation layers in a piece.

Variable Layers

4

1. Jazz from the period 1935-1945, usually known as the Swing Era; 2. A jazz specific feeling created by rhythmic contrast within a particular rhythmic framework. (Usually involving a walking bass and a steady rhythm on the drummer's ride cymbal.)

Swing

5

A general term for the overall rhythmic framework of a performance. Includes swing, funk, ballad, and Latin.

Groove

6

The organization of recurring pulses into patterns. Duple 1-2, triple 1-2-3, irregular 1-2-3/1-2

Meters

7

The speed of a piece of music.

Tempo

8

The preconceived structures that govern improvisation in jazz. These may include cycles of various kinds, popular song (like AABA), or compositional forms such as march/ragtime.

Form

9

Wind instruments, some of which are made of brass, use a cup-like mouthpiece to create the sound.

Brass instruments

10

Wind instruments whose mouthpieces are inserted between the lips, blowing air through a thin passage way with a limber reed.

Reed instruments

11

Instruments that provide accompaniment for jazz soloing: harmony instruments such as piano, guitar, bass, tuba, or percussion.

Rhythm section

12

A texture featuring one melody supported by harmonic accompaniment.

Homophonic texture

13

A texture in which two or more melodies of equal interest are played at the same time.

Polyphonic Texture

14

A texture featuring one melody with no accompaniment. Uses of break and stop-time.

Monophonic Texture

15

A composed section of music that frames a small-combo performance, appearing at the beginning and again at the end.

Head

16

1) A single statement of the harmonic and rhythmic jazz cycle defined by the musical form (12 bar blues, 32 bar popular song); 2) The repeated portion of a popular song, often introduced by its verse.

Chorus

17

A standard song form, usually divided into shorter sections, such as AABA (each section 8 bars long) or AA (each section 16 bars long).

32 Bar Song Form

18

A twelve bar cycle used as a framework for improvisation by jazz musicians.

12 Bar Blues Form

19

The most common 32 bar popular song form, referring to melody and harmonic progression (but not text).
Each portion is 8 bars long, with B, the bridge, serving as the point of contrast.
A = statement, A = repetition, B = contrast, A = return.

AABA Form

20

Second most common 32 bar popular song form, referring to melody and harmonic progression. Each portion 8 bars long, with the A section returning in the songs middle. Can also be considered AA' form.

ABAC

21

A short, catchy, and repeated melodic phrase.

Riffs

22

A short melodic or rhythmic idea.

Motives

23

A musical utterance that's analogous to a sentence in speech.

Phrases

24

Short melodic ideas that form a shared basic vocabulary for jazz improvisers.

Licks

25

A preexisting melody used as the basis for improvisation.

Melodic Paraphrase

26

A new melodic line created with notes drawn from the underlying harmonic progression; also known as running the changes.

Harmonic Improvisation

27

The process of using a scale as the basis for improvisation.

Modal Improvisation

28

A slow romantic popular song;
A long, early type of folk song that narrated a bit of history.

Ballad

29

An unaccompanied, rhythmically loose vocal line sung by a field worker.

Field Holler