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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (67):

Motivation for helping

– Situational factors affect broad range of helping (e.g., role models, time pressure, number of available others to provide help, appearance of victim, location)
– Broad range of helping behaviors are associated with dispositional factors:
– empathy
– advanced moral reasoning
– perspective taking
– compassionate love for others
– It feels good to reduce
someone else’s distress!


What are some healthy motivations for entering helping professions?

-altruism; selfless concern for well-being of others
-consistent with values
-personal experiences with therapy
-inspired by clients
-colleagues who are caring
-desire social change


What are NOT so-healthy motivations?

-unresolved personal issues
-seeking relationships due to own needs
-desire to save others to enhance self-esteem


What are some characteristics of effective helpers?



what is the research of characteristics of effective helpers based on?

Research based on:
-Effective helpers identified by co-workers.
-22 characteristics identified through literature and consultation with counselor educators. Experts in counselor education rank ordered in terms of importance.
-Personality test and measure of family of origin functioning for counselor trainees; supervisor ratings of trainees based on practicum.


What are some potential harmful therapies?

-attachment therapy: used to treat children with histories of trauma and abuse, challenging behaviors, and difficulty attaching to primary caregivers
-Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE)
-scared straight
-recovered memory techniques
-critical incident stress debriefing


How do we know we are helping?

-ethical principles
-theoretically grounded
-evidence-based: experimentally validated, randomized trials, replication, progress monitoring


what are the components of empathy?

-recognizing emotion in others


empathy and compassion

• Empathy can lead to negative emotions
(vicarious pain)
• Compassion: “feeling concern for another's
suffering and desiring to enhance that individual's


empathy in helping relations

-Affective Sharing :
-Be present in the moment
-Pay attention to the client’s tone, body language, words
-Self-Other Awareness :
-Recognize your self as separate from the client
-Be aware of vicarious pain
-Recognize that your reactions are not the same as your client
Cognitive Flexibility and Emotion Regulation:
– Be able to turn on and off your receptiveness to others


cultivating compassion

loving-kindess meditation
-focus on
2.close person
3.neutral person
4.challenging person


what are ethics?

-system of moral principles
-professional code of behavior


When is there ethical dilemma?

conflict among:
-ethical principles
-professional code of behavior


what are the ethical principles for psychologists?

-Beneficence and Nonmaleficence
-Respect for People’s rights and dignity
-Fidelity and responsibility


beneficence and nonmalefience

-work benefits others
-do no harm
-apples to humans and animals in treatment and research
-aware of how physical and mental health might impact clients


fidelity and responsibilty

-trust and accountability
-responsibilites in society and communities where they work
-concern about the ethical behavior of colleagues



-promote accuracy and honest
-do not lie or steal
-keep promises
-avoid deception



-fairness in access and quality
-recgonize and address potential biases
-boundaries of competence and limitations of expertise


what does the code of conduct cover?

-covers relationships with clients, students, and payers
-dictates the ethics of research as well as the treatment of animals



maintaining information in a way that protects it from disclosure to others


why is it important to maintain confidentiality

HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability


what are the limits to confidentiality?

-child abuse:psychologist must have only logical reason to suspect that abuse has occured
-elder or dependent adult abuse:physical,sexual, or financial
-self harm: suicidality or behavior that may be lethal
-threats of significant harm toward an identified person -must be severe if not potentially lethal


Informed consent

-"nature and anticipated course of therapy, fees, involvement of third parties and limits of confidentiality and provide sufficient opportunity for the client to ask questions and receive answers"
-therapy procedures, risks, benefits
-client rights, responsibilities
-limits of confidentiality
make sure to discuss at start of helping relationship and again whenever needed


multiple relationships

occurs when a psychologist is in a professional role with a person and:
-same time is in another role with the same person
-same time is in a relationship with a person associated with or related to the person with whom psychologist has the professional relationship
-promises to enter into another relationship in the future with the person or person associated with or related to the person


Ethical decision making

1.Assessment – identify the situation (client’s mental state, circumstances, helper’s values and feelings)
2. Benefit – what will benefit the client, the helping relationship, and the client’s significant others?
3. Consequences and Consultation – legal, ethical, emotional, and therapeutic consequences. Who can I consult with?
4. Duty – to whom does duty exist (client, person at risk of harm, etc.)? Potentially multiple
5. Education – review guidance regarding appropriate actions (e.g., Ethical principles and codes, case books, laws, literature)


ethical behavior related to culture

• Understand cultural values
– Recognize differences that may exist
– Be open to client’s experience
• Expression of empathy may rely on cultural values, societal norms, and
communication styles. For example, Asian American clients rated
Advisement more highly than other types of interventions (e.g.,
Reflection) in terms of empathic response (Wang)


who developed client centered therapy?

• Carl Rogers
• Developed in the late
1950s and 1960s as a
reaction to
behaviorism, and the
medical model view of


what is client-centered therapy?

• Basic emphasis is on a
understanding a person’s
perception and
experience of his/her
world in order to:
– Establish a
therapeutic bond
– Be able to accurately
reflect empathy


fundamental theory

– People are:
• Essentially trustworthy;
• Have a vast potential for understanding themselves &
resolving their own problems without direct
• Capable of self-directed growth if involved in a
therapeutic relationship that meets the ”necessary and
sufficient conditions'


Causes of psychopathology or behavioral problems

– Conditions of worth inhibit the natural growth process
of human beings
• “I am not a good person if I make mistakes.”
• “I am not worthy of respect if I disagree with my parents or partner.”
• “I’m not worthy of love of if I don’t look like J-Lo.”
– Incongruence between real self-image and ideal selfimage
(externally imposed)
– Lack of acceptance by self and others


“Necessary and sufficient conditions” for change

– Genuineness (Congruence)
– Unconditional Positive Regard
– Empathy
• Experiences client’s frame of reference
• Strives to communicate this understanding


what are the person-centered therapy principles and techniques?

-fundamental theory
-causes of psychpathology or behavioral problems
-necessary and sufficent conditions for change


what are the goals of client-centered therapy?

-independence from external evaluation criteria
-increased awareness of self and others


what are the characteristics of an effective therapeutic relationship?

-empathy:understand what the client is experiencing, thinking, and feeling and how the other perceives his or her behavior
-counselor genuineness: counselors state of mind
-unconditional postive regard


Non-verbal attending

-most communication that occurs between ppl is expressed nonverbally.
-effective non verbal attentivness includes: eye contact, head nods, facial animation, body posture, distance between speaker and listener
-basically means commuicating with someone that you are listening and paying attention to them without speaking.



-repeating or rephrasing what client is saying, using fewer words and greater clarity than the client
-restatement of content:focus on content or meaning of the client's statement
-reflection of feelings: include identification of feelings


steps to reflect feelings to client

1. recognize the client's feelings or affect tone: view nonverbal and verbal cues. some known as leakage because client did not intend to have them communicated
2.choosing words to describe the feeling
3.give perception back to client in a manner that is reflective rather than perspective


why ask questions?

-information gathering
-encourage the client to explore feelings, thoughts, patterns of behavior
-collaborate with client on goal-setting and developing solutions
*make sure they are open ended questions


what not to do when asking open ended questions

-dont interrupt client just to ask a question if the client is exploring productively
-avoid questions that can be answered with yes or no
-avoid why questions


Intake interview

-Initial contact with client
-why is client seeking treatment?
-informed consent
-can the client's needs be met in this setting?
-you may follow up on written info from the client


case history

-identifying data(age, sex, occupation)
-presenting problems(client's definition, history, severity
-client's current life situation(typical day, activities, characteristics that present challenges)
-family history(family roles, parents)
-personal history(medical, educational,susbatance abuse)
-observation of client during interview


what is viewed in a mental status exam

-attitude/rapport:does client relate to the counsler
-behavior/activity:is client fidgeting
-mood(client's perspective) and affect(how the client presents)
-perceptual distrubances
-thought(form and content)


mental status exam

-quick way to identify cognitive impairment
-orientation to person, place, and time


why do exploration?

-healing for client to share story
-client gains perspective
-therapists gains understanding


how to help clients explore the most useful material?

-focus on client's thoughts, feelings and behaviors
-don't just focus on what you're curious about
-can use paraphrasing to come back to earlier material (earlier you said...)


solution focused approach

-focus on developing solutions not understanding the root of the problem
-assumes that solution behaviors already exist for clients
-focus on client's desired future rather than on past problems or current conflicts


how to practice solution focused approach

-look for previous solutions ex what helped you get out of your earlier experiences of depression?
-look for exceptions to problems ex tell me about a period when you were doing well
-focus on coping ex how have you managed to cope with the situation
-miracle question ex what would be different if this problem were solved?
-validate client is doing well



-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
-Published by the American Psychiatric Association
-Updated periodically-current version is the DSM 5


what are the pros of diagnosis and the DSM?

-treatment planning and intervention
-conceptualizing presenting problems
-standard guide to recognize and categorize symptoms


what are the cons of diagnosis and the DSM?

-validity:there are no diagnostic tests for disorders
-diagnosis as a from of social control/conformity
-homosexuality and ego-dystonic homosexuality in the DSM


schizophrenic disorders

class of disorders marked by disturbances in thought that spill over to affect perceptual, social, and emotional processes


eating disorders

severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy efforts to control weight


mood disorders

class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes.


anxiety disorders

marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.


cultural issues in diagnosis

-disporportionalitiy in diagnosis, most ethnic minorities are labeled as having intellectual disabilities rather than white people.
-something can be culturally deviant in the dominant culture but in the minorities culture it is seen as normal


what are the five stages in the Minority Identity Development model?

-conformity:depreciating own culture and appreciates dominant culture
-dissonance:conflict between appreciating and depreciaitng own culture and dominant culture. mexican meets a mexican who isnt lazy, confused and realizes sterotypes arent true
-resistance and immersion:appreciate self and own culture, depreciate dominant culture. feel guilt, shame and anger
-introspection: concerned about unequivocal appreciation or depreciation. so a latina may hold some views that white people may have
-integrative awareness:appreciate self and others in group selective appreciation of dominant group


positive psychology

-the study of the conditions and processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of people
-emphasizes the importance of using scientific method to determine how individuals thrive


what contributes to psychological health

-positive emotion


what contributes to resilience?

-caring and supportive relationships within and outside family
-capacity to make realistic plans and carry them out
-positive view of yourself and confidence in your strengths and abilities
-skills in communicating and problem solving
-capacity to manage strong feelings and impulses


gender identity

how in your head you think about yourself. its the chemistry that composes you and how you interpret what that means


Gender expression

how you demonstrate your gender(based on traditional gender roles) through the ways you act, dress, behave and interact


Biological sex

refers to the objectively measurable organs, hormones, and chromosomes.
female=vaginas XX chromosomes
male=penis XY chromosones
intersex= a combo of two


sexual orientation

who you are physically, spiritually, and emotionally attracted to based on their sex/gender in relation to your own


minority stress

minority status->minority stress(discrimination, violence, internalized stigma, expectations of rejection)->coping and social support->mental health(substance use, depression, anxiety, suicidality)



unearned advantages based on membership in the dominant group


white racial consciousness

-proposed by rowe, bennet and atkinosn
-does not necessarily develop in stages
-model describes types and people can move among types as a result of dissonance


types of white consciousness

-avoidant type:lack of consideration of own white indentity, avoidance of concern for racial minorities
-dependent type:holds views that are dependent on other's views
-dissonant type:disparity between current views and experience
-dominative: believe that whites are superior to minorities,rely on sterotypes for info on minoirites,feel entitiled to advantages of being white
-conflictive:objects to racism but opposes remedies for racism
-reactive: believe white americans benefit from and are responsible for racial discrimination, feel andger, guilt and same directed towards a racist society
-integrativeL comftrable with whiteness and comftrable interacting with minorities,value culturally pluralistic society