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Flashcards in Midterm #1 Deck (105)
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1

4 General principles of psychoactive drugs use

1 - drugs aren't bad or good
2 - every drug has multiple effects
3 - size and quality of the effect depend on the amount taken.
4 - effects depend on individual history and expectations

2

Drug misuse

use of drugs in a greater amount than suggested or for a purpose other than suggested.

3

Drug abuse

drug use in a manner, amount, or in a situation that causes social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems.

4

dependence

when a drug is used so frequently that it would be difficult to stop.
- psychological/behavioural
- physiological/physical

5

tolerance

reaction to a drug decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect
- lower effect after repeated use
- body learns to compensate for chemical imbalances.

6

withdrawal

abnormal physical or psychological effects of stopping drug use.

7

examples of withdrawal symptoms

- sweating
- tremors
- vomiting
- anxiety
- insomnia
- aches and pains.

8

Correlate vs. antecedent

correlate - a variable that is statistically related to another

antecedent - a factor that occurs before an event

9

Correlates to drug use

race/ethnicity/culture
gender
education
personality
genetics

NOT SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS or personality problems

10

Antecedents to drug use

aggressiveness
conduct problems
poor academic performance
attachment to drug-using peers
parental and community norms

11

Risk factors for drug use

- community/peer/parental attitudes toward drugs
- antisocial behaviour
- poor academic performance

12

Protective factors against drug use

- involved with religion
- perceived harm of drug

13

Motives fr Drug use

- characteristics of the drug
Motives for TRYING - family/community/societal factors
Motives for CONTINUING - drug properties/charcteristics

14

drug

any substance, natural or artificial, other than food, that by its chemical nature alters structure or function in a living organism

15

psychoactive drug

a drug that specifically affects thoughts, emotions, or behaviours

16

illicit drug

a drug that is unlawful to possess or use.

17

harm reduction

initiatives of Canada's Drug Strategy to use public education programs to significant;y reduce the damage associated drug use.

18

Federal approach to drug regulation in early 1900s?

- relaxed
- laissez-faire
- no regulations

19

acute behavioural toxicity

intoxication that disrupts to actions of the user and increases danger to others. eg. drunk driving.

20

acute physiological toxicity

overdose

21

chronic behavioural toxicity

personality/lifestyle changes and effects on relationships

22

chronic physiological toxicity

heart disease, lung cancer, cirrhosis, etc.

23

Examples of Drug Monitoring Systems

- Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)
- Canadian Institute of Health information (CIHI)
- Canadian Vital Statistics (CVS)
- Canadian Centre of Substance Abuse (CCSA)

24

Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)

- US system
- doesn't include all hospitals
- doesn't consider # of users vs. # of reported problems
- doesn't consider relative danger vs. total impact.
- does NOT tell use how dangerous a drug is, but can give us a picture of the deaths and ER visits due to different drugs.

25

Canadian Vital Statistics (CVS)

causes of drug related emergency room visits and deaths

26

Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA)

information on mortality due to alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco.

27

physical dependence

The body has adapted to the drug's presence
- tolerance precedes physical dependence

28

behavioural / Psychological dependence

- emotional desires
- cravings
- behaviour is reinforces by consequences.
- biggest reason for relapse and continued use.

29

Perspectives on Substance Dependence

- Early Medical model
- Positive Reinforcement Model
- Psychological Dependence

30

Early Medical Model of Substance Dependence

- a true addiction is defined by physical dependence
- solution = treat withdrawal symptoms.