Flashcards in Midterm #1 Deck (105)
4 General principles of psychoactive drugs use
1 - drugs aren't bad or good
2 - every drug has multiple effects
3 - size and quality of the effect depend on the amount taken.
4 - effects depend on individual history and expectations
use of drugs in a greater amount than suggested or for a purpose other than suggested.
drug use in a manner, amount, or in a situation that causes social, occupational, psychological, or physical problems.
when a drug is used so frequently that it would be difficult to stop.
reaction to a drug decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect
- lower effect after repeated use
- body learns to compensate for chemical imbalances.
abnormal physical or psychological effects of stopping drug use.
examples of withdrawal symptoms
- aches and pains.
Correlate vs. antecedent
correlate - a variable that is statistically related to another
antecedent - a factor that occurs before an event
Correlates to drug use
NOT SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS or personality problems
Antecedents to drug use
poor academic performance
attachment to drug-using peers
parental and community norms
Risk factors for drug use
- community/peer/parental attitudes toward drugs
- antisocial behaviour
- poor academic performance
Protective factors against drug use
- involved with religion
- perceived harm of drug
Motives fr Drug use
- characteristics of the drug
Motives for TRYING - family/community/societal factors
Motives for CONTINUING - drug properties/charcteristics
any substance, natural or artificial, other than food, that by its chemical nature alters structure or function in a living organism
a drug that specifically affects thoughts, emotions, or behaviours
a drug that is unlawful to possess or use.
initiatives of Canada's Drug Strategy to use public education programs to significant;y reduce the damage associated drug use.
Federal approach to drug regulation in early 1900s?
- no regulations
acute behavioural toxicity
intoxication that disrupts to actions of the user and increases danger to others. eg. drunk driving.
acute physiological toxicity
chronic behavioural toxicity
personality/lifestyle changes and effects on relationships
chronic physiological toxicity
heart disease, lung cancer, cirrhosis, etc.
Examples of Drug Monitoring Systems
- Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)
- Canadian Institute of Health information (CIHI)
- Canadian Vital Statistics (CVS)
- Canadian Centre of Substance Abuse (CCSA)
Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)
- US system
- doesn't include all hospitals
- doesn't consider # of users vs. # of reported problems
- doesn't consider relative danger vs. total impact.
- does NOT tell use how dangerous a drug is, but can give us a picture of the deaths and ER visits due to different drugs.
Canadian Vital Statistics (CVS)
causes of drug related emergency room visits and deaths
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA)
information on mortality due to alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco.
The body has adapted to the drug's presence
- tolerance precedes physical dependence
behavioural / Psychological dependence
- emotional desires
- behaviour is reinforces by consequences.
- biggest reason for relapse and continued use.
Perspectives on Substance Dependence
- Early Medical model
- Positive Reinforcement Model
- Psychological Dependence