Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (50):
What is a non communicable disease?
often chronic, result of combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioral factors
What are the 4 main kinds of NCDs?
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Chronic respiratory diseases
-metabolic diseases (diabetes)
What is the leading cause of death in Canada?
Why are NCDs rising in lowand mid income countries?
- treatment can drain household resources
- private healthcare
What are 6 modifiable risk factors?
what are 4 non-modifiable risk factors?
what are 4 main modifiable risk factors most associated with NCDs?
-harmful use of alcohol
What is the role of the cardiovascular system?
transports nutrients and oxygen to cells in body while CO2 and waste products of cell metablism are removed
Which blood vessels carry blood away from heart?
where is nutrients exchanged in blood path?
the top chambers of the heart are the
blood enters right atrium via
superior and inferior venae cavae
blood enters right ventricle via
blood is ejected from right ventricle via the
blood enters left atrium via
blood enters left ventricle via
blood is ejected from left ventricle via
where does blood go from aorta
which ventricle is thicker and why?
left ventricle is thicker because it needs to push against greater resistance
are atriums or ventricles thicker. why?
ventricles are thicker and stronger because they need to push harder
where are the semilunar valves located
lead to aorta and pulmonary artery
what did the framingham study find?
CVD is multi factorial
what were thefindings of the monica project?
coronary hard disease is decreasing because of reduced smoking, hypertension rates, but obeisity is going back up
what are the 4 main modifiable risk factors for CHD
what is the clinical definition of blood pressure
systolic of 140 and diastolic of 90
blood pressure is dependent upon:
-total blood volume
how does sodium intake increase blood pressure?
-water retention increases blood volume
-volume increases blood pressure
what is hypertension known as in pregnant women?
can turn into eclampsia where protein develops in urine and seizures happen
what is the clinical presentation of HTN:
usually asymptomatic until complications occue. (heartdisease, kidney failure, retina malfunction)
what is tx for hypertension?
pharmacotherapy (diuretics, calcium channel blockers
what is prevention?
what is atherosclerosis
arterial wall hardening and loss of elasticity
how is atherosclerosis causes?
caused by atherosclerotic plaque build up in vessel wall
plaque has 3 main components:
-smooth uscle cells, macrophages and leukocytes
-cholesterol particles (lipoproteins)
what is the first sign of athsclor
fatty streaks present in aorta almost from birth
what is the 4 step plaque building process?
- excess cholestrol in blood vessels collects in artery wall
-body sends wbc
-macrophage cells die after eating cholesterol
-dead cells contribute to formation of plaque
What is acute coronary syndrome?
-sudden cardiac death
Chronic coronary artery disease
-coronary artery disease
What i s myocardial ischemia? what does it do?
imbalance between myocardial O supply n demand
impairs pumping ability of heart due to insuff O, reduced nutrient, inadequate removal of waste
what is angina pectoris
-chest pain caused by MI
What are the two types of angina?
common, due to narrowing of coronary artery
Unstable angina: pain occurs at rest, due to rupture of plaque
What is sudden cardiac death?
unexpected death from cardiac causes, coronary atherosclerosis
What is a cardiac arrhythmia
disturbance of crdiac rhythm
What are the effects of nicotine on CHD?
-tobacco contains carcinogens
Preventio of CHD:
Definition of myocardial infarction:
interpution of blood supply to part of heart causing necrosis
Infarct: ischemic necrosis of myocardium because cannot self repair
what is most common cause of heart attak:
occlusion of coronary artery caused by artherosclerosis or rupture of artherosclertic plaque
what are the 2 types of MI
subendocardial infarction: involves inner 1/3to 1/2 of ventricular wall
transmural infarction: full thickness of ventricular wall
what is cardiogenic shock?
complications from MI, severe ventricular dysfunction