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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (50):
1

What is a non communicable disease?

often chronic, result of combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behavioral factors

2

What are the 4 main kinds of NCDs?

- Cardiovascular diseases
- Cancers
- Chronic respiratory diseases
-metabolic diseases (diabetes)

3

What is the leading cause of death in Canada?

Cancer

4

Why are NCDs rising in lowand mid income countries?

- treatment can drain household resources
- private healthcare

5

What are 6 modifiable risk factors?

-obeisity
-high BP
-smoking
-diabetes
-psychosocial facotrs
-high cholesterol

6

what are 4 non-modifiable risk factors?

-genetics
-gender
-age
-ethnicity

7

what are 4 main modifiable risk factors most associated with NCDs?

-Tobacco use
-diet
-physical inactivity
-harmful use of alcohol

8

What is the role of the cardiovascular system?

transports nutrients and oxygen to cells in body while CO2 and waste products of cell metablism are removed

9

Which blood vessels carry blood away from heart?

Arteries

10

where is nutrients exchanged in blood path?

capillaries

11

the top chambers of the heart are the

atriums

12

blood enters right atrium via

superior and inferior venae cavae

13

blood enters right ventricle via

tricuspid valve

14

blood is ejected from right ventricle via the

pulmonary artery

15

blood enters left atrium via

pulmonary veins

16

blood enters left ventricle via

bicuspic/mitral valve

17

blood is ejected from left ventricle via

aorta

18

where does blood go from aorta

coronary arteries
body

19

which ventricle is thicker and why?

left ventricle is thicker because it needs to push against greater resistance

20

are atriums or ventricles thicker. why?

ventricles are thicker and stronger because they need to push harder

21

where are the semilunar valves located

lead to aorta and pulmonary artery

22

what did the framingham study find?

CVD is multi factorial

23

what were thefindings of the monica project?

coronary hard disease is decreasing because of reduced smoking, hypertension rates, but obeisity is going back up

24

what are the 4 main modifiable risk factors for CHD

-cigarette
-hypertension
elevated cholesterol
-diabetes

25

what is the clinical definition of blood pressure

systolic of 140 and diastolic of 90

26

blood pressure is dependent upon:

-cardiac output
-total blood volume
-viscocity
-resistance

27

how does sodium intake increase blood pressure?

-salty diet
-water retention increases blood volume
-volume increases blood pressure

28

what is hypertension known as in pregnant women?

pre-eclampsia
can turn into eclampsia where protein develops in urine and seizures happen

29

what is the clinical presentation of HTN:

usually asymptomatic until complications occue. (heartdisease, kidney failure, retina malfunction)

30

what is tx for hypertension?

pharmacotherapy (diuretics, calcium channel blockers
lifestyle changes

31

what is prevention?

lifestyle changes

32

what is atherosclerosis

arterial wall hardening and loss of elasticity

33

how is atherosclerosis causes?

caused by atherosclerotic plaque build up in vessel wall

34

plaque has 3 main components:

-smooth uscle cells, macrophages and leukocytes
-extracellular matrix
-cholesterol particles (lipoproteins)

35

what is the first sign of athsclor

fatty streaks present in aorta almost from birth

36

what is the 4 step plaque building process?

- excess cholestrol in blood vessels collects in artery wall
-body sends wbc
-macrophage cells die after eating cholesterol
-dead cells contribute to formation of plaque

37

What is acute coronary syndrome?

-unstable angina
-myocardial infarction
-sudden cardiac death

38

Chronic coronary artery disease

-stable angina
-coronary artery disease

39

What i s myocardial ischemia? what does it do?

imbalance between myocardial O supply n demand
impairs pumping ability of heart due to insuff O, reduced nutrient, inadequate removal of waste

40

what is angina pectoris

-chest pain caused by MI

41

What are the two types of angina?

Stable angina:
common, due to narrowing of coronary artery
Unstable angina: pain occurs at rest, due to rupture of plaque

42

What is sudden cardiac death?

unexpected death from cardiac causes, coronary atherosclerosis

43

What is a cardiac arrhythmia

disturbance of crdiac rhythm

44

What are the effects of nicotine on CHD?

- vasoconstrictor
-tobacco contains carcinogens

45

Preventio of CHD:

anticholest/hypertens/diabetic meds
sodium restriction
weight reduction

46

Definition of myocardial infarction:

interpution of blood supply to part of heart causing necrosis
Infarct: ischemic necrosis of myocardium because cannot self repair

47

what is most common cause of heart attak:

occlusion of coronary artery caused by artherosclerosis or rupture of artherosclertic plaque

48

what are the 2 types of MI

subendocardial infarction: involves inner 1/3to 1/2 of ventricular wall
transmural infarction: full thickness of ventricular wall

49

what is cardiogenic shock?

complications from MI, severe ventricular dysfunction

50

what is ventricular aneurysm?

patch of weakened tissue in ventricular wall