Midterm 2 Flashcards Preview

HSCI 2211 > Midterm 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (22):
1

What is a stroke?

blood going to brain is cut off, leading to loss of brain function and necrosis of neurons

2

What is an ischemic stroke?

interuption of supply without bleeding

3

whats a hemorrhagic stroke?

rupture of blood vessel

4

strokes are most often caused by

atherosclerotic lesions in cerebral arteries

5

whats a completed stroke?

lasts more than 24 hours

6

how is stroke diagnosed?

mri, ct, ultrasound or cereral angiogram

7

how many people are affected globally?

15 million annually, 1/3 are fatal

8

2nd in global mortality

85% of deaths occur in developping nations

9

what are main risk factors for stroke?

hypertension, smoking, alcohol and stimulant drugs, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidimia

10

what is the link between atrial fibrillation and stroke?

1/3 willl experience strokes

11

how?

thrombus in left vent dislodge and migrate into brain

12

what is anaplasia?

poor cellular differentiation

13

what is metaplasia?

the replacement of one cell type with another

14

what is dysplasia?

loss of uniformity and orientation of epithelia

15

what is carcinoma in situ?

hasnt left its basement membrane

16

what is the process for cancer cells to become invasive?

1. sever connections to other tumour cells
2. devs surface receptors that allow binding to extracellular matrix
3.expresses prteolytic enzymes that cut through stuff
4. needs to become mobile (motility inducing chemicals)

17

what are the three ways cancer becomes metastatic?

-blood, lymph, direct seeding

18

what are the 4 types of genes mutations occur in?

tumour suppressor genes,
oncogenes, dna repair genes, apoptotic genes

19

what are the hallmarks of cancer?

growing without signals
doesnt listen to stop signals (not density dependant)
unlimited number of cell divisions
avoidance of cell death
angiogenesis (gets its own blood vessels)
metastasis

20

what is the most common risk factor category?

Environment at 65%~

21

what are the 3 types of genetic causes

autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes
inherited autosomal recessive syndromes of defectic dna repair
familial cancers (no clear defined pattern)

22

How do benign tumours do damage?

pressure necrosis