Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (22):
What is a stroke?
blood going to brain is cut off, leading to loss of brain function and necrosis of neurons
What is an ischemic stroke?
interuption of supply without bleeding
whats a hemorrhagic stroke?
rupture of blood vessel
strokes are most often caused by
atherosclerotic lesions in cerebral arteries
whats a completed stroke?
lasts more than 24 hours
how is stroke diagnosed?
mri, ct, ultrasound or cereral angiogram
how many people are affected globally?
15 million annually, 1/3 are fatal
2nd in global mortality
85% of deaths occur in developping nations
what are main risk factors for stroke?
hypertension, smoking, alcohol and stimulant drugs, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidimia
what is the link between atrial fibrillation and stroke?
1/3 willl experience strokes
thrombus in left vent dislodge and migrate into brain
what is anaplasia?
poor cellular differentiation
what is metaplasia?
the replacement of one cell type with another
what is dysplasia?
loss of uniformity and orientation of epithelia
what is carcinoma in situ?
hasnt left its basement membrane
what is the process for cancer cells to become invasive?
1. sever connections to other tumour cells
2. devs surface receptors that allow binding to extracellular matrix
3.expresses prteolytic enzymes that cut through stuff
4. needs to become mobile (motility inducing chemicals)
what are the three ways cancer becomes metastatic?
-blood, lymph, direct seeding
what are the 4 types of genes mutations occur in?
tumour suppressor genes,
oncogenes, dna repair genes, apoptotic genes
what are the hallmarks of cancer?
growing without signals
doesnt listen to stop signals (not density dependant)
unlimited number of cell divisions
avoidance of cell death
angiogenesis (gets its own blood vessels)
what is the most common risk factor category?
Environment at 65%~
what are the 3 types of genetic causes
autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes
inherited autosomal recessive syndromes of defectic dna repair
familial cancers (no clear defined pattern)