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Flashcards in Midterm 1 Review Deck (109)
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What are the central Elements of jazz?

Blues, western classical music, African - American religious music (gospel), Latin feel added later


What are the elements of music?

Rhythm, tone/timbre/sonority , harmony, melody, texture/counterpoint (homo-phonic vs. polyphonic), form


What is sonority?

Timbre, distinctive quality of sound, dynamics


What distinguishes jazz?

Less regular vibrato, pitch bending, brightness modification, smears, blue notes, mutes, personal tone quality


What are the elements of rhythm?

Time, beat, meter (beat grouping), measure (one unit of meter), tempo.


What is the most common beat pattern in jazz? Second and third?

Four beat. Two beat, sometimes three beat.


What is the difference between simple and compound meter?

Simple - two notes per beat Sw Sw

Compound - three or more notes per beat Sww Sww


What can outline a beat pattern?

Repeated rhythmic patterns, accents, short notes proceeding a long note, pitch change, and often chord change


What makes music swing?

Shape of individual notes, dynamics, vibrato, syncopation, swing eighths, articulation


What is stop time?

rhythm section plays every other beat 123 rest etc


What is back beat?

Emphasis after the beat/weak beat


How do chords move?

From dissonance to stability


What is the tonal system?

chord progression that revolves around tonic, strong sense of direction and arrival, strong progressions move by 4ths, strongest chords in root position


What are rhythm changes?

chord progression of Gershwin's "I got Rhythm"


What are the basic forms of jazz?

Blues form and 32 bar song form


What is the blues progression?

12 measures per chorus: 4 I | 2 IV | 2 I | 1 V | 1 IV | 2 I |


What is a turnaround and when does it happen in 32 bar song form?

It occurs at the end of 8 bar phrases and especially before the B section, most often a repetition of a previous section


What did jazz borrow from African music?

syncopation, call and response, poly-rhythm, cross accents ( regular pattern of accents of the prevailing meter is contradicted by a conflicting pattern), tone bending, bright sonority


What is an example of an African piece?

Hunter's Dance


Give some examples of African American religious music.

Ring shout: voice clapping etc, not allowed instruments, references Old Test


What are the Georgia sea islands and why are they important?

Off the Georgian coast, little commerce so African American culture remained static, developed gullah


What music led to the development of blues?

Styles recorded by Alan Lomax
Field calls - used to call across fields, shorter, less rhythmic

Work songs - field hands used to get in rhythm during work, ex. Berta Berta


What defines blues?

Lyrics in couplets: A A B (response)

Lyrics Earthy and direct: defeat, discouragement, metaphorical, racial protest, voodoo

Blues scale.

Blues form: 4 I | 2 IV | 2 I | 1 V | 1 IV | 2 I |

Soulful and manipulative


Where was early blues performed and by whom?

Juke Joints and Honky-tonks by male voice and guitar


What were the characteristics of country vs. city blues?

Country: sparse accompaniment, free form, earth lyrics, undeveloped, expressive voice, singers mostly male.

City: several instruments, 12-bar controlled form, sophisticated lyrics, controlled voice, singers female


What are some characteristics of ragtime?

Not improvised, written, sparing pedal, right hand syncopation and cross rhythms with bass, left hand reminiscent of a march


What is the Ragtime form? What does it resemble?

A A B B A | C C D D, 16 per section like a march


Who is Jelly Roll Morton?

Creole Pianist, self-proclaimed inventor of jazz, best early jazz arranger and composer (head arrangements), added swing to right hand, moves to Chicago after closing of storyville, often does trading 2's and 4's

recordings in 1920's by victor:
clarinet Omar Simeon | banjo Johnny St. Cyr
trumpet George Mitchell | trombone Kid Ory


Why are there few recordings of early jazz?

Black performers feared their ideas would be stolen


What was the first jazz recording?

Tiger Rag - New Orleans Dixieland Jazz Band