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Flashcards in Midterm 1 review Deck (79):
1

organelle that is the principle site for energy production

Mitochondria

2

small granules composed of RNA and proteins, synthesizes proteins

Ribosomes

3

Ribosomes are attached to the outside and it functions to make proteins by taking up polypeptides and amino acids from cytosol and assembling them into proteins.

Rough ER

4

does not contain ribosomes and functions to synthesize lipid substances, steroid hormones, and detoxifies certain organic chemicals

Smooth ER

5

these organelles package materials made in the cell into vesicles and distributes them to other parts of the cell.

Golgi apparatus

6

Vesicular organelles that are formed by the golgi apparatus and then are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. They contain digestive enzymes and function as an intracellular digestive system.

Lysosomes

7

the largest structure in the cell. It is the control center of the cell, controlling its chemical reactions and reproduction.

Cell's Nucleus

8

What are the four basic tissues in the body?

1)Epithelium
2)Connective tissue
3)Nervous tissue
4)muscle

9

Axial skeleton consists of?

vertebral column, ribs, and sternum

10

Appendicular skeleton consists of?

bones of the limb and bones connecting the limbs to the axial skeleton

11

Visceral skeleton consists of?

bones that develop in the viscera or soft structures such as the os penis in carnivores and the os cordis in the ox and sheep

12

what are the different parts of the long bone?

Diaphysis
Epiphysis
Metaphysis

13

what is the gross term for bone that looks solid?

Compact bone

14

term for bone that has visible spaces in it. the empty spaces between trabeculae are filled with bone marrow?

Cancellous/spongy bone

15

immature bone that has been laid down but not organized by secondary remodeling.

woven bone

16

mature bone that has been remodeled.

Haversian bone

17

when stimulated, they develop into the more active, secretory cell = osteoblast (stemcells)

osteoprogenitor cells

18

differentiated bone-forming cell responsible for the production of bone matrix. cell becoming bone.

osteoblast

19

Mature bone cells, derived from osteoblasts.

Osteocytes

20

bone resorbing cells. large, motile, often multinucleated cells that are derived from stem cells in blood producing tissue of bone marrow and spleen.

Osteoclasts

21

chondrocytes begin to divide and organize into columns forming the zone of proliferation.

zone of reserve cartilage (youngest)

22

these cells are dividing and as they produce cartilaginous matrix, they push the epiphysis away from the diaphysis, thereby elongating the bone.

Zone of proliferation

23

each division of chondrocytes brings about larger cells.

Zone of hypertrophy

24

(oldest) hypertrophied cells begin to calcify the cartilage matrix.

Zone of calcified matrix

25

types of joint movements

rotation
flexion
extension
adduction
abduction
circumduction
pronation
supination

26

what are the function of muscles?

movement
posture maintenance
heat generation
protection of some internal organs
squeezes fluids and other substances
respiration
heart beat

27

muscle that is striated, musculature of the heart, branched fibers.

Cardiac muscle

28

muscle striated, generally attached to bone, usually under voluntary control, non branched fibers

Skeletal muscle

29

muscle not striated found in the walls of viscera (gut, vessels, glands, etc)

smooth muscle

30

what are the skeletal muscle fibers?

red
white
intermediate

31

what does the sacromere contain?

Z line
I band
A band
M line
H band
motor unit
motor end plate

32

what are the connective tissue coverings in a muscle?

epimysium
perimysium
endomysium

33

what is origin of a muscle?

the least movable end

34

what is insertion of a muscle?

the most movable end

35

Dense connective tissue that attach muscles to bone. consist entirely of collagen bundles in regular arrangement

tendon

36

what are the 2 anatomical divisions of the nervous system?

Central (CNS)
Peripheral (PNS)

37

what are the two functional divisions of the peripheral nervous system?

Efferent (away from the CNS)
Afferent (to the CNS)

38

Slows heart rate, increases gut motility, and brings body back to rest after an emergency.

Parasympathetic system

39

in an emergency this system overrides the parasympathetic system by dilating pupils, increases heart rate, opens lungs airways....(flight or fight)

sympathetic system

40

what are the 12 cranial nerves?

olfactory n. I
optic n. II
oculomotor n. III
trochlear n. IV
trigeminal n. V
abducens n. VI
facial n. VII
auditory (vestibular-cochlear n.) VIII
glossopharyngeal n. IX
vagus n. X
accessory n. XI
hypoglossyl n. XII

41

what nerve innervates muscles of facial expression?

Facial n. VII

42

what nerve innervates muscles of mastication?

trigeminal n. (mandibular) V

43

what nerve innervates muscles of the tongue?

Hypoglossal n. XII

44

what is the part of the nervous system that contains the neuronal cell bodies. nerve fibers are not myelinated?

Gray matter

45

what is the part of the nervous system that contains only axions. nerve fibers are myelinated?

white matter

46

what are the functional divisions of the brain?

forebrain
brainstem
vestibular system
cerebellum

47

what are the anatomical divisions of the brain?

cerebrum-telencephalon
brainstem-diencephalon
brainstem-mesencephalon
brainstem-metencephalon
brainstem-myelencephalon

48

what are the 3 layers of the meninges?

dura mater
arachnoid
pia mater

49

what is the structure of the spinal cord?

central canal
gray matter
white matter
dorsal horn
ventral horn

50

what is the blood brain barrier?

prevents many substances in the blood from readily entering the cells of the CNS. It is composed of capillaries of the CNS.

51

what blood vessels contribute to the blood supply to the brain?

basilar artery
internal carotid artery
-anterior crebral artery
-middle cerebral artery
-posterior communication branch

52

what is the vertebral formula for the dog?

c7 t13 l7

53

what is the vertebral formula for the horse?

C7 T13 L6-7

54

What is anticlinal vertebra?

has the most vertically oriented spine (t11 in dogs)
all spines cranial to it are inclined caudally/ all spines caudal to it are inclined cranially

55

what are the parts of the nuchal ligament?

funicular (cord)
lamellar (sheet)

56

which species does not have a nuchal ligament?

cat

57

what are the components of the intervertebral disc

annulus
nucleus

58

what are the 2 parts of the costovertebral joints?

head of rib with caudal and cranial costal facets of adjacent vertebrae (ball and socket type joints)
-tubercle of rib with the transverse process of the corresponding vertebra

59

what are the cutaneous muscles?

platysma (covers neck and face)
cutaneous trunci (covers the side of trunk)
cuaneous omobrachialis (continuation of the cutaneous trunci muscle over the shoulder in horses and ruminants
Preputial muscle(present in carnivores, ruminants and pigs

60

Breathing:
-ribs pull crainally
-diaphragm is displaced caudally
-external intercostals, levatores costarum, rectus thoracis, scalenus and cranial serratus dorsalis work in inspiration.

Inspiration

61

Breathing:
-ribs are drawn caudally
-decreases the transverse diameter and volume of the thorax
-internal intercostals, caudal serratus dorsalis and the diaphragm, external abdominal oblique work in experation

Expiration

62

flexors of the the spine, is ventral to the transverse processes of the vertebrae.

hypaxial muscles

63

extensors of the spine and dorsal to the transverse processes of the vertebrae

epaxial muscles

64

epaxial muscle most lateral?

iliocostalis system

65

epaxial muscle most intermediate?

longissimus system

66

epaxial muscle most medial?

transversospinalis system

67

what nerve innervates the diaphragm?

phrenic nerve

68

what are the three diaphragmatic hiatus?

aortic hiatus
esophageal hiatus
caval foramen

69

what structures are in the aortic hiatus?

aorta
azygous vein
thoracic duct

70

what structures are in the esophageal hiatus?

esophagus, dorsal/ventral vagal trunks

71

what structures are in the caval formen?

caudal vena cava

72

what structures are associated with the occipital bone?

hypoglossal canal
foramen magnum
nuchal crest

73

what structures are associated with the temporal bone?

zygomatic process
tympanic bulla
external acoustic meatus

74

what structures are associated with the frontal bone?

cornual process

75

what structures are associated with the ethmoid bone?

cribriform plate

76

what structures are associated with the sphenoid bone?

optic canal

77

what structures are associated with the maxillary bone?

infraorbital canal
upper check teeth

78

what structures are associated with the incisive bone?

upper incisors

79

what structures are associated with the mandible?

lower teeth