Flashcards in Midterm 1 review Deck (79):
organelle that is the principle site for energy production
small granules composed of RNA and proteins, synthesizes proteins
Ribosomes are attached to the outside and it functions to make proteins by taking up polypeptides and amino acids from cytosol and assembling them into proteins.
does not contain ribosomes and functions to synthesize lipid substances, steroid hormones, and detoxifies certain organic chemicals
these organelles package materials made in the cell into vesicles and distributes them to other parts of the cell.
Vesicular organelles that are formed by the golgi apparatus and then are dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. They contain digestive enzymes and function as an intracellular digestive system.
the largest structure in the cell. It is the control center of the cell, controlling its chemical reactions and reproduction.
What are the four basic tissues in the body?
Axial skeleton consists of?
vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
Appendicular skeleton consists of?
bones of the limb and bones connecting the limbs to the axial skeleton
Visceral skeleton consists of?
bones that develop in the viscera or soft structures such as the os penis in carnivores and the os cordis in the ox and sheep
what are the different parts of the long bone?
what is the gross term for bone that looks solid?
term for bone that has visible spaces in it. the empty spaces between trabeculae are filled with bone marrow?
immature bone that has been laid down but not organized by secondary remodeling.
mature bone that has been remodeled.
when stimulated, they develop into the more active, secretory cell = osteoblast (stemcells)
differentiated bone-forming cell responsible for the production of bone matrix. cell becoming bone.
Mature bone cells, derived from osteoblasts.
bone resorbing cells. large, motile, often multinucleated cells that are derived from stem cells in blood producing tissue of bone marrow and spleen.
chondrocytes begin to divide and organize into columns forming the zone of proliferation.
zone of reserve cartilage (youngest)
these cells are dividing and as they produce cartilaginous matrix, they push the epiphysis away from the diaphysis, thereby elongating the bone.
Zone of proliferation
each division of chondrocytes brings about larger cells.
Zone of hypertrophy
(oldest) hypertrophied cells begin to calcify the cartilage matrix.
Zone of calcified matrix
types of joint movements
what are the function of muscles?
protection of some internal organs
squeezes fluids and other substances
muscle that is striated, musculature of the heart, branched fibers.
muscle striated, generally attached to bone, usually under voluntary control, non branched fibers
muscle not striated found in the walls of viscera (gut, vessels, glands, etc)
what are the skeletal muscle fibers?
what does the sacromere contain?
motor end plate
what are the connective tissue coverings in a muscle?
what is origin of a muscle?
the least movable end
what is insertion of a muscle?
the most movable end
Dense connective tissue that attach muscles to bone. consist entirely of collagen bundles in regular arrangement
what are the 2 anatomical divisions of the nervous system?
what are the two functional divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
Efferent (away from the CNS)
Afferent (to the CNS)
Slows heart rate, increases gut motility, and brings body back to rest after an emergency.
in an emergency this system overrides the parasympathetic system by dilating pupils, increases heart rate, opens lungs airways....(flight or fight)
what are the 12 cranial nerves?
olfactory n. I
optic n. II
oculomotor n. III
trochlear n. IV
trigeminal n. V
abducens n. VI
facial n. VII
auditory (vestibular-cochlear n.) VIII
glossopharyngeal n. IX
vagus n. X
accessory n. XI
hypoglossyl n. XII
what nerve innervates muscles of facial expression?
Facial n. VII
what nerve innervates muscles of mastication?
trigeminal n. (mandibular) V
what nerve innervates muscles of the tongue?
Hypoglossal n. XII
what is the part of the nervous system that contains the neuronal cell bodies. nerve fibers are not myelinated?
what is the part of the nervous system that contains only axions. nerve fibers are myelinated?
what are the functional divisions of the brain?
what are the anatomical divisions of the brain?
what are the 3 layers of the meninges?
what is the structure of the spinal cord?
what is the blood brain barrier?
prevents many substances in the blood from readily entering the cells of the CNS. It is composed of capillaries of the CNS.
what blood vessels contribute to the blood supply to the brain?
internal carotid artery
-anterior crebral artery
-middle cerebral artery
-posterior communication branch
what is the vertebral formula for the dog?
c7 t13 l7
what is the vertebral formula for the horse?
C7 T13 L6-7
What is anticlinal vertebra?
has the most vertically oriented spine (t11 in dogs)
all spines cranial to it are inclined caudally/ all spines caudal to it are inclined cranially
what are the parts of the nuchal ligament?
which species does not have a nuchal ligament?
what are the components of the intervertebral disc
what are the 2 parts of the costovertebral joints?
head of rib with caudal and cranial costal facets of adjacent vertebrae (ball and socket type joints)
-tubercle of rib with the transverse process of the corresponding vertebra
what are the cutaneous muscles?
platysma (covers neck and face)
cutaneous trunci (covers the side of trunk)
cuaneous omobrachialis (continuation of the cutaneous trunci muscle over the shoulder in horses and ruminants
Preputial muscle(present in carnivores, ruminants and pigs
-ribs pull crainally
-diaphragm is displaced caudally
-external intercostals, levatores costarum, rectus thoracis, scalenus and cranial serratus dorsalis work in inspiration.
-ribs are drawn caudally
-decreases the transverse diameter and volume of the thorax
-internal intercostals, caudal serratus dorsalis and the diaphragm, external abdominal oblique work in experation
flexors of the the spine, is ventral to the transverse processes of the vertebrae.
extensors of the spine and dorsal to the transverse processes of the vertebrae
epaxial muscle most lateral?
epaxial muscle most intermediate?
epaxial muscle most medial?
what nerve innervates the diaphragm?
what are the three diaphragmatic hiatus?
what structures are in the aortic hiatus?
what structures are in the esophageal hiatus?
esophagus, dorsal/ventral vagal trunks
what structures are in the caval formen?
caudal vena cava
what structures are associated with the occipital bone?
what structures are associated with the temporal bone?
external acoustic meatus
what structures are associated with the frontal bone?
what structures are associated with the ethmoid bone?
what structures are associated with the sphenoid bone?
what structures are associated with the maxillary bone?
upper check teeth
what structures are associated with the incisive bone?