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Flashcards in exam 5 avian Deck (31):
1

fusion of the bones to decrease flight stress and wind resistance. usually consists of the ilium, ischium, lumbar, sacral, and first 6 caudal vertebrae.
-there is no ventral symphysis.

Synsacrum

2

Pair of clavicles, aka "wish bone".
-this structure acts as a strut to brace the wings apart.

Furculum

3

Formed by the fusion of the last few coccygeal vertebrae.
-it acts as an anchor for the main tail feathers.

Pygostyle

4

Short bone extending from the sternum (acts as a wing strut)

Coracoid

5

Largest bone in leg

tibiotarsus

6

Formed by the fusion of II, III, & IV

Tarsometatarsal

7

The body chamber, no diaphragm

Coelum

8

Muscular structure found at the tracheal bifurcation.

Syrinx

9

From a duck: an outpouching of trachea for vocalization

Syringeal bulla

10

Site of gas exchange: homologous with mammalian alveoli

Air capillaries

11

True stomach: glancular stomach where the first significant amount of digestive juices are added.
-mucosal ridges (look like papillae)
-simple columnar epithelium
-large submucosal glands
-one type of glandular cells (function as parietal and chief cell)

Proventriculus

12

(ventriculus)
-mechanical stomach
-muscular organ used to grind and break up food.
-may contain grit or small stones eaten by animal
-lined by a very thick keratinized layer (not epithelium)
-simple cuboidal to columnar epithelium
-amorphous substance is the pellicle

Gizzard

13

The junction between the jejunum and ileum. Reminant of the yolk sac.

Meckel's diverticulum

14

(lymphoid tissue)
at the most proximal part of the cecae

Cecal tonsils

15

AKA preen gland, found at the base of the tail

Uropygial Gland

16

What are the two main flight muscles and their functions?

Pectoralis- pulls wings down
Supracoracoideus- pulls wings up

17

What are the three categories of feathers?

1) contour- covers most of the bird
2) down- provides insulation
3) tufted bristle- look like eyelashes

18

what side of the body is the crop located?

On the Right side of the neck

19

Which species of bird lack gallbladders?

pigeons and budgies

20

what are three sections of the cloaca?

-coprodeum- receives waste from large intestines.
-urodeum- receives urine from kidneys via the ureter and sperm/eggs from gonads.
-proctodeum- temporarily stores and ejects materials.

21

which side of the ovary and oviduct is functional?

Left ovary and oviduct
(the right side degenerates and ceases function before bird reaches maturity)

22

what are the five parts of the oviduct?

1) infundibulum- site of fertilization
2) magnum- secretes thick white or albumen of the egg.
3) isthmus- adds 2 shell membranes
4) uterus (shell gland)- secretes thin white, shell, and shell pigment
5) vagina- holds egg till its laid

23

what is the function of the Thymus?

programs T-cells

24

what is the function of the Bursa of fabricius

B-cells are programmed

25

what are the four chambers of the avian heart?

same as the mammal

26

where are the kidneys located?

within the bony depression of the avian synsacrum (renal fossa)

27

what is their nitrogenous end product?

Uric acid (not urea)

28

what are the main differences in Avian and mammalian respritory system?

-tracheal rings are complete (form a circle)
-avian trachea is longer and wider than a comparable sized mammal
-airflow in the lung is unidirectional
-lungs are rigid, with little expansion and contraction
-air is moved by air sacs, which function as a system of bellows and air sacs may enter some bones
-no diaphragm

29

what is the Respiration cycle

-two inspirations and two expirations
~first inhalation- air passes into paired bronchi
-50% goes through the lungs and into the caudal air sacs
-50% goes into the lungs
First expiration- lungs fill with air from the caudal air sacs
-air from lungs and cranial air sacs empties through the trachea
Second inhalation-stale air (remaining 50% from first inhalation) empties from the lungs into the cranial air sacs.
Second expiration-cranial air sacs expel air out of the body.

30

what are the 8 air sacs in the chicken?

1-cervical
1-clavicular
2-cranial thoracic
2-caudal thoracic
2-abdomina

31

what are the functions of the air sacs?

-air reservoirs
-controlling body heat
-moistening air
-cushioning the subcutaneous body layer
-provides buoyancy
-aiding with some vocalization and courtship
-no gas exchange