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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (14):

What is the frankenpledge system?

A system that relied on mutual aid among families and paid through tithings.


What are Shireeves?

Shireeves supervised the frankenpledge system but the position was not salaried.


What are thief catchers?

A group of private vigilantes who were hired by people who can afford it. Likened to brokers, but not everyone could afford the services.


What were the Bow Street runners?

A group hired by the courts to pick up those w ho have warrants out. A private system of law enforcement.


Why was Sir Robert Peel important?

He is known as the father of policing, the first one to establish a professional police force in England.


Name a few of Peel's Principles of Professional Policing? (Lyman 32)

The police should serve the people
The police should be impartial, unbiased
Equal justice for everybody


What characterized the Political or Patronage Era of policing?

Politicians rewarding their constituents with employment

You could buy positions within police dpeartments


What characterized the Professionalization Movement and Reform Era in policing?

Attempting to break up political machines and create impartial administrative bureaucracies. The police were held accountable to the city rather than to politicians. More checks and balances.


What did OW Wilson and August Vollmer do?

Pushed for "minimum standards" for recruitment and promotion, training, knowledge of law, etc.

OW Wilson introduced the idea of preventative patrols, he studied policing and patrol to figure out what the standard practices of police should be.

August Vollmer emphasized education and training and suggested that officers should hold a degree in police science.


What was J. Edgar Hoover's impact on professionalizing the FBI and uses of science and technology in investigations?

Hoover wanted to get rid of "greenhorns" (fresh off the boat). He wanted clean cut officers rather than urban ethnics to make up American police departments, the FBI especially.

There was a new emphasis on major vs. minor crimes, switching from maintaining order to preventative crime fighting.

New technology such as ballistics, bodily fluids, microscopic materials, etc.


Wickersham Commission

Commission put together by Hoover to look at corruption in policing, caused particuarly by prohibition. Looking at the use of "the third degree", or beating a confession out of somebody.


Fallacy of the three R's and the police-population ratio

Randomized patrol - Kansas city
Response times - crime done and over with once 911 is called
Reactive investigations - high clearance rates don't deter crime


Three P's

Problem Solving


Kansas city Preventative Patrol Experiment

Funded by the police foundation, found that randomized patrol is not effective in deterring crime