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what are the 3 profiles of temperament according to Thomas and Chess (1977)?

did a longitudinal study and traced the lives of 141 individuals from infancy to adulthood
-suggested that infants' behaviour various along 9 temperamental dimensions and identified 3 patterns/profiles of temperament :
1. easy child (40% of the sample):adaptive, cheerful; established routines
2. the slow-to-warm-up child (15% of sample): inactive, low key reactions, negative mood; adjusts slowly (not upset by unfamiliar situations)
3. the difficult child (10% of sample): irregular routines, slow to accept new experiments, reacts negatively/high reactivity (upset by unfamiliar situations)
*2/3 of difficult children had behavioural issues in school; less than 1/5 of easy children did (so some stability to model but not perfect)
*the influence of temperament often depends on the environment in which the child develops


what is self-regulation and what is associated with difficulties with self regulation?

the ability to monitor and control our own behaviour, emotions; or thoughts
*we can see early differences in self-regulation as well
-difficulties with self regulation increase risk of alcohol, drug, gambling issues as adults and ADD diagnosis in school


compare inhibited(shy) and sociable children and what these temperaments are linked to
*not all kids fit into a category

shy children react negatively and or withdraw from novel stimuli
sociable children display positive emotions and approach novel stimuli
*linked to: neurology (amygdala); RH frontal lobe; neural circuit for shyness and parenting


temperament does show some stability but explain how it can change over time

it depends largely on the parenting habits- if a good match b/w parents and child then there is more adaptive functioning (temperament change)
if the child is a difficult child and the parent has positive parent attributes (patient, sensitive and demanding) instead of negative parent attributes (irritable, impatient and demanding), then the child may have more adaptive functioning
*NSE- linked to negative attributes (irritability, fearfulness, etc.)


temperament and emotional development are also linked to attachment; define attachment

= strong, affectionate tie/close emotional relationship
-comforted by nearness/desire to maintain proximity (john Bowlby, 1969)
-learned from the monkey study, attachment is meeting emotional needs; demonstrated around 6 months


define temperament

a person's or animal's nature, especially as it permanently affects their behaviour
-behavioural styles, which are fairly stable across situations and are biologically based, make up an infant's temperament
*the differences in emotion and style of behaviour are evident in the first few weeks after birth and are important throughout life


Ethological theory?

views development from an evolutionary perspective
-behaviours in this theory are inherited and are
an adaptive response that have survival value (crying, grasping, clinging elicit caregiving from adults)
Behaviours promote:
-emotional development
-feelings of security
-capacity for future relationships
*according to Bowlby, children who form attachment to an adult are more likely to survive (the monkeys isolated but still given food avoided the others when put in a cage with other monkeys)


describe the belief around separation anxiety and when does it emerge and peak?

now seen as a good thing
-is this fear or a milestone of attachment ?
-seen at 6-8 months, peaks at 14-18 months, then decreases
-seen as a positive association with attachment


Describe the 4 attachment profiles derived from the Strange Situation task. Which one has the highest stability?

1. Secure attachment(65%); explores room, responsive to stranger in parents presence but may be upset when they leave. Calmed by their return and more attached to caregiver than a stranger
2. Avoidant(20%): not visibly upset when parent leaves and when they return, may ignore them by looking or turning away (treats stranger same way as parent)
3. Resistant(10-15%): upset when the mother leaves, remains upset or even angry when she returns and is difficult to console. weary of stranger even with parent close
4. Disorganized(5%): seems confused when mother leaves and when she returns, seems to not really understand what's happening (don't know whether to approach or avoid). most stressed by the procedure and show patterns of both avoidant and resistant behaviour *most stable out of the 4 (often from kids who were sexually abused)


Attachment theory?

Attachment theory states that a strong emotional and physical attachment to at least one primary caregiver is critical to personal development


how is attachment measured in children?

the quality of attachment is judged from reaction to both separation and reunion to mother give important info about the nature of the infant-caregiver relationship
-studied using the strange situation procedure for 1&2yr olds - measuring individual differences


Describe the caregiving hypothesis

attachment patterns are largely determined from parenting
-according to Ainsworth(1979), initial attachment depends more on caregiver than child!
*parents who describe their own childhood as one of secure attachment, tend to have parent strategies to promote attachment


describe the stability of attachment

typically stable for middle + SES homes
-low SES home-> may move from secure to insecure or move around insecure patterns


what are the 2 possible caregiver profiles of avoidant babies?

1. impatient, unresponsive, negative affect
2. over stimulating, but not tuned into infant signals


what are the 2 possible caregiver profiles of resistant babies?

associated with inconsistent parenting


what are the 2 possible caregiver profiles of disorganized/disoriented babies?

can be related to neglect/abuse


does childcare/daycare impact attachment?

overall no, but less sensitive parenting combined with higher hours and/or lower quality of childcare, results in less secure attachment profiles
"quality of care" matters; ratio of workers to children; training; oversight, stability of staff
*some reseach shows increased aggression, lower vocabulary in preschoolers with more than 30hrs a week in daycare
*longer parental leave associated with increased attachment


what are the two proposed critical aspects of parenting ?

1. acceptance/responsiveness
2. demanding/control (reasonable demands and limits)
*consistency is also important
->parenting/childcare make up our "environment" over the first few years of life...


What are some child outcomes associated with permissive parenting? Uninvolved?

permissive parenting is associated with less demands for the child as the parent is less demanding/controlling but yet is responsive. The outcome is impulse control and self-regulation
-uninvolved parenting, the parents have less demands/control and are less responsive/accepting. child outcome is aggression, poor academic performance, anti-social and high risk behaviours in adolescence


What are some child outcomes associated with authoritative parenting? authoritarian?

-authoritative parenting (have both acceptance and control)
-authoritarian (lack acceptance/responsiveness but have control
authoritative parenting is better than authoritarian parenting


Describe the 4 main parenting styles with respect to control and acceptance measures

1. authoritative parenting (have both acceptance and control)
2. authoritarian parenting (lack acceptance/responsiveness but have control
3. permissive parenting ( associated with less demands for the child as the parent is less demanding/controlling but yet is responsive)
4. Uninvolved parenting ( the parents have less demands/control and are less responsive/accepting)


how do we test infants

preferential looking, facial expression, habituation, sucking rate, heart rate


define habituation

becoming unresponsive to a stimulus upon repeated presentation


What is the difference between sensation and perception?

sensation= detection of stimuli by sensory receptors and transmission to brain
perception= *interpretation* of sensory input (may be dependent upon experience with the environment)
*therefore, moral of the story, stimulate your baby- auditory, vision etc.


what have people studied with infants?

smell, taste, touch- highly sensitive in infancy, hearing-auditory threshold is higher but sensitivity to speech sounds is greater, vision- almost blind when born


what do newborns (1 month olds) see? how does it develop?

newborns/1 month olds see at 6 metres what normal adults see at 60-120 metres (almost blind when born )
-their acuity improves rapidly and by the first bday, is essentially the same as that of a normal adult (20/20)
-color vision develops over first 3 months
-large environmental role (recall autostimulation theory)
-Beyond acuity: note that form perception is complex as it requires interpretation


describe babies and the complex form perception of faces. what are they capable of at 3 months?

babies dont necessarily like faces but rather complex things. However, if the stimulation was moving, they preferred to look at faces
- at 3 months: can discriminate b/w pictures and prefer "attractive" faces


how were infants studied in relation to 3 dimensional space (their depth perception) ?
When do kids show fear on the visual cliff apparatus?

-> the visual cliff study (mothers tried to get their babies to craw to them across the real looking fake cliff or glass-covered platoform)
->depth perception is tied to motor development (if they perceived depth then their heart rate went up)
-if they went across the glass, it was associated with crawling because early crawlers had earlier depth perception
-only older, crawling babies are afraid of the deep side(fear of the drop is related to the amount of experience an infant has in crawling


What is an ‘auditory threshold’?

refers to the quietest sound that a person can hear (babies cant hear as well as adults and have a higher auditory threshold)


Infants' reflexes are used as evidence that they have sensitivity to what sensation?

touch produces reflexive movements, documenting an infants ability to perceive touch


what is intermodal perception? example?

=refers to perception of information from objects or events available to multiple senses simultaneously.
integrating sensory info-> when we combine stimulation from more than one sense
or... the ability to use one sensory system to identify someone familiar though another sensory system
ex. reaching= vision and touch or being able to see, taste, smell, feel, and hear yourself taking a big bite out of an apple.
-Because most objects and events can be seen, heard, and touched, everyday perception is primarily intermodal
-virtual objects study with 8-31 day old infants: suggests systems are connected (vision and touch- baby will freak out if they cant touch what they are seeing)


define learning

change in behaviour as a result of experience or practice


Habituation is linked to growth in what part of the brain in the first year of life? Is quick habituation regarded as a good thing or not?

habituation-> early learning: linked to cerebral cortex development (quick habituation is a good thing-> it is good for infants to get bored easily/fast as this may mean that they are fast learners and no longer are responsive to a stimulus that has repeated presentation )


classical conditioning vs operant conditioning

Are both processes that lead to learning:
Classical conditioning-
->Pavlov's dogs- learned to expect food at the sound of a bell and began to salivate without actually seeing/smelling the food
->food= unconditioned stimulus
->salivation= unconditioned response (becomes conditioned?)
->bell= neutral stimulus that becomes a conditioned stimulus
->pairs two stimuli

Operant conditioning. ( B.F. Skinner) -
->operant response leads to either reinforcement or punishment (both are either positive or negative)
->positive= adding something to the environment (could be something good to increase the behaviour ie. pos. reinforcement, or bad to decrease the behaviour ie. pos. punishment
->Negative= taking away something to either increase the response ie. neg. reinforcement, or decrease the behaviour, ie. neg. punishment
->pairs behaviour and response and leads to changes in voluntary behaviour


A time-out is an application of what type of learning principles?

negative punishment. When a child demonstrates an undesirable behaviour, she is removed from the desirable activity at hand to decrease that behaviour in the future


Explain how a parent finally giving in to constant whining can exacerbate the behaviour, using learning principles.

the parent is using operant conditioning because they are using positive reinforcement for the bad behaviour (buying the toy in the store after the child whined for it for 40mins) and also using negative reinforcement
->all at variable ratio as the child does not know how long they need to whine for to get the reward
*inconsistent reward is the strongest reinforcement schedule


what are the 3 central issues with punishment?

timing, strength and rationale


types of learning in child development?

-classical conditioning
-operant conditioning
-modelling/imitation (Albert Bandura): 2-3 weeks
-delayed/deferred imitation= retaining mental representations: 9-14 months


is reinforcement or punishment better?

the power of a variable ratio:
Variable interval and variable ratio are the two schedules of reinforcement that produce the highest rates of response
-> a variable-ratio schedule is a schedule of reinforcement where a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a steady, high rate of responding


define cognition and cognitive development

cognition= activity of knowing and the mental processes used to acquire knowledge and solve problems

cognitive development = changes that occur in these mental skills and abilities over the course of life


what is a schema?

theories of a child; mental structures that help us interpret the world


define assimilation and accommodation in relation to development. give examples

assimilation: interpret new experiences with existing schemes (her dog licks her face and so when her neighbours dog licks her face because it fits her simple theory of dogs)
accommodation: create/change schemes to interpret new experiences (being surprised when she sees a cat as it looks kinda like a dog and leans against her instead of licking her face. she revises her theory to include this new kind of animal)


Cognitive equilibrium occurs when we spend more time ________________; disequilibrium occurs when we are ________________.
*Which of these describes a period of cognitive growth?

Cognitive equilibrium occurs when we spend more time assimilating
disequilibrium occurs when we are spending more time accommodating rather than assimilating
*when disequilibrium occurs, children reorganize their theories/schemas to return to a state of equilibrium and therefore, growth is linked to disequilibrium (&accommodation) *this is bc children realize that their current theories are not adequate as they are spending more time accom. rather than assim.


name the 4 stages of cognitive dev. according to Piaget (and the age at which they correspond)
give an example of a milestone in each stage

stage 1: Sensorimotor -> birth-2 (infants knowledge of the world is based on senses and motor skills, by the end of period, infant uses mental representations)
stage 2: Preoperational -> 2-7 (learns how to use symbols such as words and numbers, to represent aspects of the world, but relates to the world only through their perspective)
stage 3: Concrete Operations -> 7-11 (understands and applies logical operations to experiences; provided they are focused on the here and now)
stage 4: formal operations -> 11+ (thinks abstractly, speculates on hypothetical situations, and reasons deductively about what may be possible


describe the 1st stage of cognitive development (include the 6 substages)

sensorimotor stage (0-2):
-here schemes first = sensory motor activity/patterns
1. reflexive schemes= first month

2. primary circular reactions= 1-4 months
-coordinating sensation and new schemas. For example, a child may suck his or her thumb by accident and then later intentionally repeat the action. These actions are repeated because the infant finds them pleasurable

3. secondary circular reactions= 4-8 months
-becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment

4. coordination of secondary circular reactions= 8-12 months
*beginning of goal directed behaviour and object permanence ->combine their learned abilities and reflexes to achieve goals. For example, they might push aside toys blocking the specific one they want

5. tertiary circular reactions= 12-18 months
*trying novel actions on objects you already know
-trial-and-error experimentation, For example, a child may try out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver.

6. mental representations= 18 months+
-children become able to form mental representations of objects. Because they can symbolically imagine things that cannot be seen, they are now able to understand object permanence. words and gestures are symbols that stand for something else


What's the difference between primary and secondary circular reactions?

1. Primary circular reactions (1-4 Months Old)
-Infants learn to coordination sensations. A primary circular reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex: sucking thumb)
2.Secondary circular reactions( 4-8 Months Old) Children become aware of things beyond their own body and become more object oriented. (ex: accidentally shaking a rattle and continuing to do so for the sake of satisfaction)


describe the 2nd stage of cognitive development

preoperational stage (2-7y):
-symbolic thought but no "operations"
*child uses symbols to represent objects/events
-limited by egocentrism= view from one's own perspective only (3 mountain problem)
stage broken into 2:
1. preconceptual period (2-4y)
2. intuitive period (4-7y)


What are the 2 sub-parts of the preoperational stage? What is the difference?

1. preconceptual period (2-4y):
marked by symbolic function- make one thing stand for another
->growth in language
->symbolic/pretend play/sociodramatic play (correlated with ratings of "competence", sustained attention, memory, language, literacy and creativity) *an imaginary friend acts similarly- creative use of language even if not with another person
2. intuitive period(4-7y):
-thinking about objects is dominated by salient features (eg. conservation studies and centration)
conservation= idea that certain physical properties remain the same despite changes in outward appearance
centration= narrowly focused thought; focus on one aspect of a stimulus only
(thinking one cup has more water in it bc it is a taller/skinnier cup)



-operations= mental representations for logical rules/strategies



operations= internal mental representations/activity for logical thinking (rules/strategies)


how do children overcome intuitive perception?

-need to develop decentration (ability to focus on multiple aspects of a stimulus) and reversibility
->children have centration and lack of cognitive operations to be able to overcome intuitive


describe the 3rd stage of cognitive development

concrete operational stage: 7-11y
-use mental operations to solve problems and to reason
-are able to reverse their thinking (5+3= 8 BUT 8-5=3)
-milestone = relational logic ->eg. use greater than, less than to order things (mental seriation)
transitivity (if A is more than B..)
limits: operational thinking limited to the tangible and real (the here and now)


describe the 4th stage of cognitive development

formal operational stage (11/12 +):
formal operations= mental actions performed on ideas and propositions
milestones= hypothetical thinking; deductive reasoning (the ability to draw appropriate conclusions from facts)
*where would you put a third eye if you had one? on your head vs more creative choices
-hypothetical reasoning about choices and consequences or the future
-can also lead to imagine potential alterations to society (question parents authority, government, social policy, etc.)


what does Piaget mean by constructivism? what are his educational applications?

the view that children are active participants in their own development who systematically construct ever more sophisticated understandings of their worlds
educational applications:
-discovery based learning
-critical thinking/hypothesis testing


what is Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural theory?

cog development is culturally based (children are products of their culture)
->cognitive growth/skills come from social interaction with more sophisticated partners (guided participation)
-the few elementary mental functions we are born with are transformed into higher mental functions (we shift from social to individual learning)


what are Vygotsky's educational applications?

-individual assessment/ Zone of proximal development (what they can do on their own and with help)
-Guided participation (structured activities)/ collaborate learning with MKO
-scaffolding-> artificial support for learning. may give child a lot of instruction/help = a teaching style that matches the amount of assistance to the learners needs


According to Piaget, when do kids master conservation?

concrete operational stage: 7-11y


how different are Vygotsky's applications from those based on Piaget?

-development is culturally dependent
-added dialogues (models and verbal instruction)
-guided/cooperative learning vs self-exploration
-ZPD in assessment
-role of private speech or self-talk (steps toward self-regulation) to control behaviour
-guiding cognitive growth (vs. Piaget:egocentric)


describe the 4 parts to our memory model

we hold/store info into 3 parts of the mental system:
1. sensory memory - very brief, large capacity
2. Short term memory- limited capacity
3. long term memory(or Working m)- unlimited capacity
Baddeley's WM model added a central executive(CE) and modality which allocates attention to the system (its the minds operating system)


what are the 5 ways that info processing changes with development ?

1. capacity of stores may increase(increased capacity of WM): gradual increase across development as older children have a larger mental workspace for cog dev.
2. we develop strategies for info flow: goal-directed & deliberately implemented
->young children can be taught strategies- production and utilization deficiencies (strategies become faster, more accurate and easier)
3. system becomes more effective (inhibitory processes and executive function):
-prevents task-irrelevant information from causing interference; control and allocation of attention
-increases gradually with cog. dev.; individual variability (*older kids did better at remembering things they were supposed to and are more flexible in their thinking)
4. increased automaticity:
-WM involved in tasks/problem solving initially but with experience it becomes automatic
5. increased processing speed: increases with dev


what are core knowledge theories?

they propose distinctive domains of knowledge, some of which are acquired very early in life
->some forms of knowledge are so important for survival that learning of these is simplified (eg. language is acquired rapidly)


what is theory of mind

awareness of relation between mind and behaviour and understanding that behaviour is linked to individuals thoughts/experiences


autobiographical memory

=memory of the significant events and experiences in ones own life; for one time events21


what are the two developments necessary (along with brain dev)

1. clear self-image
2. ability to create a time-organized life story (conceptually and linguistically)


infantile amnesia ?

cant remember before the age of 2 or 3
-sense of self?
-mediated by language (to create a narrative to represent their past)
-frontal cortex dev.


what are the issues with preschoolers and eyewitness memory? what are the special considerations

->difficulty with language comprehension/questions
->can be misled by phrasing of questions implying what happened
->more likely to answer with yes with yes/no questions
->poor at source-monitoring
->weaker autobiographical memories

special considerations:
->interviews as soon as possible (less time leg)
->open ended questioning; tell event in your own words
->consistant reinforcement
->non-biased reinforcement
->practice for children


define Language

• A socially shared code, used to communicate; uses arbitrary symbols and rules that govern combinations of these symbols
o Symbolic
o Structured: each language has its own structure (may be some overlap)
o Meaningful
• Socially shared code: If you go into a group of people who are speaking a language you don’t know, you can't participate because you don't know the code
• Used to communicate: to convey information (using the code to communicate)
• Arbitrary symbols: language is symbolic ('c''a''t' = cat = that 4 legged animal)
• Rules that govern how we combine them: We combine sounds, words and sentences in certain ways


how is language characterized by displacement and generativity

Displacement: can talk about things that aren't in the here and now and generativity: endless sentences/words you can make by combining units of words/sounds


• Modularity of language?

language is made up of distinct rule-based systems (we can sub divide language into different modules of rule based systems … eg. speech sounds is different to the grammar of language)


linguistic competence

Rules are inferred from behaviour; by using language we demonstrate our linguistic competence (eg. using the right grammatical pronouns 'her hit me' instead of 'she hit me')


• Language is a combination of component rule systems, what are the 5 distinct, interrelated elements?

o Phonology (phonemes)= the sounds of language
o Morphology (morphemes)= rules of meaning within language (smallest unit of meaningful language ie. sit and ing)
o Syntax (how words are combined to create phrases and sentence structure)
o Semantics (meaning)= study of words and their meaning
o Pragmatics (language use) = rules that lead to effective communication



• Speech sounds; the smallest unit of speech that can change meaning; "categories of sound" ('s' 'b' 'p' 't' vs cough is not a speech sound) don't have meaning but can change meaning 'bat' vs 'cat' vs 'hat'
• Phonology: the study of phonemes/speech sounds and how they are combined (rule based system)



• The smallest linguistic units with meaning
• Eg. 'cat' = 3 phonemes and 1 morpheme
• Can be free (words) or bound (added to words)
o Eg. CATS = CAT + S (2 morphemes)
o Eg. JUMPED = JUMP + ED (2 morphemes)
• And they develop in predictable ways
• Remember: language is a rule based system
o Morphology: rules that govern the make-up of words (ie. How morphemes are combined)



• The rules that specify how words are ordered to produce various sentence types
• English: default order is SV(O) (eg. THE BOY KICKED THE BALL); then there are rules of how to alter this
o Eg. Passives (eg. The ball was kicked by the boy), questions (did the boy kick the ball?), complex syntax, etc



• Rules re: (Social) use of language
• Eg. Language doesn't work if more than one person is talking at the same time or 'did you get new shoes?' reply: 'my head hurts' = violation of pragmatics
• Interactionist perspective on language development
o Biological maturation X environment X cognitive development
o So environmental modeling/input is clearly needed (you wont be able to speak English if you're not exposed to it)
• Early pragmatics/social interaction
• IDS: Infant-directed speech (motherese): exaggerated pitch, loudness, decreased rate, increased repetition
• Syntax & Semantics: require exposure (interactive is better)



LAD (Language acquisition device) when we are born =Old view
LMC (language making capacity) =Current view


describe how Language is Neurologically based

• Language circuit
Frontal lobe:
-Involved in production
Temporal lobe:
-Involved in comprehension
• A lot of our production starts in the inferior parietal lobule
• Morphology tends to be in the frontal lobe
• Semantics is everywhere


Describe the development of speech perception ->journey to our first words

• Speech develops gradually, leading to the first words
Children first go through same stages of production:
o Cooing (0 - 2 months … vowel sounds eg. Uuuu)
• 2 months old - distinguish difficult contrasts from many languages
o Babbling (2 - 8 months: reduplicated by 7 - 8 months … consonants eg. mmmm)
o More sophisticated babbling (intonation, varying phonemes eg. Madobube); 8 - 11 months
o Single words (12 - 18 months)


• Semantics

= meaning and lexical organization
o Lexicon = internal store of words - sound and meaning (and spelling) (memory)
• Sound Spelling Meaning


what are the typical first words

names for things (nouns) seen and interacted with (mom, dad, animal) or greetings or familiar words (ie hi, bye-bye)



made up word that sounds like a real one (close to the target word usually)



single-word utterance that express more meaning than that of the used word
ex. when baby says mama she could mean many different things (could just be labeling, could want mama, etc.)


fast-mapping/quick incidental learning(QUIL)?

-we store vocabulary items after only a few exposures
-explains how words are learned/stored rapidly
-sounds are connected/mapped to meaning
->easy to mess up because words are learned so quick (puter instead of computer or meaning might be wrong)


what are over and underextentions?

overextentions: specifics used to describe broader set (use car for all motorized vehicles or dog for all animals)

underextensions: general words used to describe specific instances (candy is only used for suckers)


what are ways that children learn words?

Storybooks, intensive language stimulation, self talk (you talk about what youre doing) and parallel talk (you tell them what theyre doing)
-videos-> sesame street, blues clues, dora, some vocab learning but greater when watched with an adult


telegraphic speech?

missing words (him run instead of he is running)
->first 2 years of life: focus on phonology & first few words; then early word combinations; then comes morphology
preschool age= mastering morphology


what is over-regularization?

morphological error where you over extend rules to irregular cases
-> goed, eated, tooths, mouses
->use of irregular words may be inconsistent