Midterm 2: Chapters 6 and 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Midterm 2: Chapters 6 and 8 Deck (104)
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1

the cardiovascular system: what are the major functions?

- delivers o2, nutrients
- removes co2, other wastes
- transports hormones, other molecules
- temperature balance and fluid regulation
- acid-base balance
- immune function

2

the cardiovascular system: what are the three major circulatory elements?

1. a pump (heart)
2. channels or tubes (blood vessels)
3. a fluid medium (blood)

3

_____ grenerates pressure to drive blood through vessels.

heart

4

_____ must meet metabolic demands.

blood flow

5

how does the blood flow through the heart?

from superior/inferior vena cavae -> RA -> tricuspid valve -> RV -> pulmonary valve -> pulmonary arteries -> lungs -> pulmonary veins -> LA -> mitral valve -> LV -> aortic valve -> aorta

6

right side of the heart is the ?

pulmonary circulation
( pumps deoxygenated blood from body to lungs)

7

left side of the heart is the?

systemic circulation
(pumps oxygenated blood from lungs to body)

8

myocardium itself needs blood and blood comes from?

- right coronary artery supplies right side of heart
- left (main) coronary artery supplies left side of heart

9

whenever you refer to myocardium you are referring to the ?

heart

10

myocardium: _____ muscle

cardiac

11

what are some left ventricle (LV) characteristics?

- must pump blood to entire body
- thickest walls (hypertrophy)
- LV hypertrophies with exercise and with disease
- but exercise adaptations versus disease adaptations very different

12

skeletal muscle cells are?

- large, long, unbranched, multinucleated
- intermittent, voluntary contractions
- Ca2 released from SR

13

myocardial cells are?

- small, short, branched, one nucleus
- continuous, involuntary rhythmic contractions
- calcium-induced calcium release

14

myocardial cells have one one fiber type similar to type I of skeletal muscle that include?

- high capillary density
- high number of mitochondria
- striated

15

cardiac muscle fibers connected by regions called?

intercalated discs

16

_____: hold cells together.

desmosomes

17

____: rapidly conduct action potentials

gap junctions

18

what are the two main pathways of the heart?

intrinsic and extrinsic

19

intrinsic control of heart activity means the heart controls its self, this is also known as?

spontaneous rhythmicity

20

_____: special heart cells generate and spread electrical signal.

spontaneous rhythmicity

21

what are the electrical signals that the spontaneous rhythmicity spread?

- sinoatrial (SA) node
- atrioventricular (AV) node
- AV bundle (bundle of His)
- purkinje fibers

22

extrinsic control of heart activity consists of?

parasympathetic and sympathetic control

23

heart activity that is parasympathetic controls?

- decreases force of contraction
- decreased HR below intrinsic HR
( intrinsic HR: 100 beats/min, normal resting HR (RHR): 60 to 100 beats/min, elite endurance athlete: 35 beats/min)

24

heart activity that is sympathetic controls?

- increases force of contraction
- increases HR above intrinsic HR
- determines HR during physical, emotional stress
- maximum possible HR: 250 beats/min

25

what is the cardiac cycle?

all mechanical and electrical events that occur during one heartbeat

26

the cardiac cycle consists of?

diastole and systole

27

_____: relaxation phase
- chambers fill with blood
- twice as long as systole

diastole

28

_____: contraction phase

systole

29

during the cardiac cycle ventricular systole is 1/3 of the cardiac cycle time and what else is occurring?

- blood ejected
- during systole, blood ejected out, but some leftover
- blood leftover in ventricle = end-systolic volume (ESV)

30

during the cardiac cycle ventricular diastole is 2/3 of the cardiac cycle time and what else is occurring?

- fill 70% passively, remaining 30% by atrial contraction
- at end, blood in ventricle = end-diastolic volume (EDV)

31

_____: volume of blood pumped in one heartbeat

stroke volume (SV)

32

ejection fraction (EF): ?

% of EDV that was SV
- SV / EDV = EF
- 60 mL / 100 mL = .6 = 60%
(normal for healthy, active young adult at rest)
- clinical index of heart contractile function

33

_____: total volume of blood pumped per minute
- Q = HR * SV (use L/min)
- resting cardiac output (4.2 to 5.6 L/min)
(average total blood volume: 5 L, therefore, total blood volume circulate once every min)

cardiac output

34

what is involved in the vascular system?

arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venues, veins

35

_____: carry blood away fro heart.

arteries

36

____: control blood flow, and waste exchange

arterioles

37

____: site of nutrient and waste exchange

capillaries

38

____: collect blood from capillaries

venules

39

_____: carry blood from venues back to heart

veins

40

_____: pressure exerted by blood on arterial walls.

blood pressure (BP)

41

_____:
- highest pressure in artery (during systole)
- top number, ~ 110 to 120 mmHG

systolic pressure (SBP)

42

_____:
- lowest pressure in artery (during diastole)
- bottom number, ~70 to 80 mmHg

diastolic pressure (DBP)

43

_____:
- average pressure over entire cardiac cycle

mean arterial pressure (MAP)

44

what are the general hemodynamics?

blood flow, pressure, resistance

45

_____: required by all tissues
- ? = change in pressure / resistance

blood flow

46

_____: force that drives flow
- provided by heart contraction

pressure

47

_____: force that opposes flow
- provided by physical properties of vessels

resistance (R)

48

_____: the constriction of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure.

vasoconstriction (VC)

49

_____: the dilatation of blood vessels, which decreases blood pressure.

vasodilation (VD)

50

_____: also known as resistance vessels
- control systemic R
- site of most potent VC and VD

arterioles

51

what is the distribution of blood?

blood flows to where it is needed the most

52

regions of _____ metabolism lead to ______ blood flow

increased; increased

53

according to intrinsic control of blood flow arterial walls can respond to?

local control mechanisms

54

_____: ability of local tissues to constrict or dilate arterioles that serve them

intrinsic control

55

what are the three types of intrinsic controls?

1. metabolic mechanisms (VD)
2. endothelial mechanisms (mostly VD)
3. myogenic mechanisms (VC, VD)

56

_____:
- strongest stimulus for release of local VD chemicals
- buildup of local metabolic by-products ( decreased O2, increased CO2, K+, H+, lactic acid)

metabolic mechanisms (VD)

57

_____:
- substances secreted by vascular endothelium (arterial inner lining)
- endothelium-mediated vasodilation

endothelial mechanisms (mostly VD)

58

_____:
- local pressure changes can cause VC, VD
- decreased pressure causes VD
- increased causes VC

myogenic mechanisms

59

_____: redistribution of flow by the nervous system

extrinsic neural control

60

what happens in the extrinsic neural control of blood flow?

sympathetic nervous system innervates smooth muscle in arteries and arterioles

61

the baseline of sympathetic activity leads to?

vasomotor tone to maintain adequate blood supply

62

_____ sympathetic activity leads to ____ VS of area. (blood flow to that area decreases)

increased; increased

63

_____ sympathetic activity leads to ____ VC; passive VD (blood flow to that area increases)

decreased; decreased

64

what is the distribution of Venous Blood?

venous reservoir can be liberated, sent back to heart and into arteries

65

at rest, veins contain 2/3 blood volume which means?

- high capacity to hold blood volume (capacitance vessels)
- elastic, balloon like vessel walls
- much less vascular smooth muscle
- serve as blood reservoir

66

what mechanisms assist venous return?

muscle pump and one-way venous valves

67

integrative control of blood pressure is when?

blood pressure maintained by autonomic reflexes

68

_____:
- sensitive to changes in arterial pressure
- afferent signals from ? to brain
- efferent signals from brain to heart and vessels
- adjust HR and arterial pressure back to normal

baroreceptors

69

what are the three major functions of blood?

- transportation (O2, nutrients, waste)
- temperature regulation
- buffers acids from anaerobic metabolism pH balance

70

what is the blood volume in men and women?

- 5 to 6 L in men
- 4 to 5 L in women

71

? = plasma + formed elements

whole blood

72

_____: (55 - 60% blood volume)
- can decrease by 10% w/ dehydration in the heat
- can increase by 10% w/ training, heat acclimation

plasma

73

_____: (40-45% of blood volume)
- % of volume composed of formed elements
- erythrocytes (red blood cells): 99%
- leukocytes (white blood cells): <1%
- platelets: <1%

hematocrit

74

red blood cells (RBCs) have?

- no nucleus, cannot reproduce
- hemoglobin (Hb)

75

______:
- replace regularly via hematopoiesis
- life span ~4 months
- produced and destroyed at equal rates

RBCs

76

_____: oxygen-transporting protein in RBC

hemoglobin

77

_____: thickness of blood (due to red blood cells)

blood viscosity

78

if hematocrit _____, then viscosity ______.

increases; increases

79

what are the two main baroreceptors that sense pressure?

aortic and carotid artery baroreceptors

80

What are the normal ranges for resting heart rate (RHR)?

- untrained HR: 60 to 80 beats/min
- trained HR: as low as 30 to 40 beats/min

81

what affects resting heart rate?

affected by neural tone, temperature, altitude

82

_____: HR increases above HR at rest just before start of exercise

anticipatory response

83

according to cardiovascular responses. when resting heart rate is going through parasympathetic withdrawal what is happening?

vagal tone is decreasing

84

according to cardiovascular responses, when resting heart rate is going through sympathetic stimulation what is happening?

catecholamine is increasing

85

heart rate during exercise is?

directly proportional to exercise intensity.

86

_____: highest HR achieved in all-out effort to volitional fatigue.

maximum HR

87

_____:
- point of plateau
- optimal HR for meeting circulatory demands at a given submaximal intensity
- if intensity increases, so does ?
- adjustment to new intensity takes 2 to 3 min

steady-state HR

88

_____: basis for simple exercise tests that estimate aerobic fitness.

steady-state HR

89

_____: increases with increased intensity up to 40 to 60% VO 2 Max

stroke volume (SV)

90

what are factors that increase stroke volume?

- increased venous return and preload
- increased contractility
- decreased afterload

91

_____:
- increased stretch leads to increased contraction strength; known as the "Frank-Starling mechanism"

increased venous return and preload

92

increased norepinephrine or epinephrine leads to?

increased contractility

93

less aortic resistance due to a decrease in total peripheral resistance (vasodilation of vessels in exercising muscle)

decreased afterload

94

what is the Fick Equation?

O2 consumption of a tissue depends on blood flow to the tissue and the amount of O2 extracted by that tissue.

95

what is the blood oxygen content when the blood is resting?

~ 6 mL O2 per 100 mL blood

96

what is the blood oxygen content when you are hitting max exercise?

~ 18mL O2 per 100 mL blood (almost triple)

97

according to cardiovascular responses blood pressure during endurance exercise . . . ?

- systolic BP increases proportional to exercise intensity
- diastolic BP does not change or slightly decrease
- mean arterial pressure (MAP) increases

98

_____: leads to periodic large increases in MAP
- up to 480/350 mmHg
- more common when using valsalva maneuver

resistance exercise

99

what is the proper breathing technique?

- concentric: exhale
- eccentric: inhale

100

_____:
- involves expiring agents closed epiglottis and contraction of trunk musculature
- increases intraabdominal and intrathoracic pressure
- can hinder venous return, causing: dizziness, disorientation, excessively high BP, syncope

avoid valsalva maneuver

101

When there is an increase in cardiac output that leads to increased available blood flow, because there is an increase in blood flow to areas with greatest metabolic need (exercising muscle) this is referring to?

blood flow redistribution

102

_____: shunts blood away from less-active regions
- kidneys
- splanchnic circulation (liver, pancreas, GI)

sympathetic vasoconstriction

103

_____: permits additional blood flow in exercising muscle.

local vasodilation

104

sympathetic vasoconstriction in muscle offset by?

sympatholysis