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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (17)
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1

St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

Perfectly rational God
Rational human
Humans are capable of (free will) choosing good and avoiding evil

2

Kant (1724-1804)

Good will : performing an action because of its value all by itself (i.e., acting without any expectation for benefit/return)
Anticipated consequences should not be part of decision making process
Good: what is right for one person is right for all persons

3

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Utilitarianism/consequentialism
Ethical choices based upon their consequences
Good: produces utility (i.e., greatest benefit to the greatest number of those affected)
Greatest good (e.g., public health, healthcare economists, quality of life)


4

John Rawls (1921-2002)

Moral and just society
Acting in our best interest
Rules to protect self and social interests
Liberty principle: everyone having the same basic rights as all others in society (e.g., education)

Moral and just society
Acting in our best interest
Rules to protect self and social interests
Liberty principle: everyone having the same basic rights as all others in society (e.g., education)

5

Aristotle (384-322 BCE)

Virtue
make choices with action
knowledge and experience
e.g., courage, honor, friendliness
Practical wisdom
not impulse-driven in novel circumstances
assessing choices good or bad
Eudemonia
human happiness flourished through virtuous actions

6

Martin Buber (1878-1965)

moral versus immoral actions
hierarchy of ethical levels
“I-I” lowest level (e.g., a child extension of father’s ambition)
“I-IT” failing to recognize the value of people (e.g., referring health care professionals as “my people”, or “FTEs”)
“I-YOU” individuality and value of people are recognized
“I-THOU” agape (love of others)

7

Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987)

Developmental stage theory
Premoral / Preconventional
Making decisions:
Level 1: to avoid punishment
Level II: to achieve personal outcome

8

Viktor Frankl (1905-1997)

human is made of mind, body, and sprit
every human entitled to dignity
human is the only intelligent being who asks some crucial questions
beliefs or relationship with God is the major driver for morality among humans
Vivid and lively conscience provides sense of purpose in your life
Conscience is finding deeper meanings in everything

9

Autonomy Concepts

Based on the idea of self rule or self determination.
Means that there is freedom from other’s control and the capability to make choices

10

What is Nonmaleficence?

An obligation to not cause harm to others.
Or to intentionally refrain from things that cause harm.

11

Utilitarian Logic

Benefits of procedures balanced against the harm

12

Kantian Ethics:

All people have value and deserve benefits of health care.

13

Beneficence?

It is acting with charity and kindness or:
Active beneficence. You choose to act with beneficence.

14

Justice

Doing what is perceived to be fair and deserved

15

Distributive Justice

Based on society’s expectations.
Market driven economy makes it difficult.
Access to health care is linked to insurance coverage.
What is the obligation to the non-insured?

16

Dogma

Strongly held standards

17

Epidemiology

(study of disease to prevention and treatment)