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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (99)
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1

  • Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, Late Medieval/Proto-Renaissance, Tempera & gold leaf on wood
  • Texture and movement in clothing - light and shadow
  • Moves away from flat represntation - illusion of 3 dimensions
  • Somewhat proportional - Mary in relation to throne, Christ
  • Traditional cue - Mary largest because she is most important figure
  • Gold background - ends illusion of dimension - like Medieval paintings

2

  • Giotto di Bondone, Madonna Enthroned, Late Medieval/Proto-Renaissance, Tempera & gold leaf on wood
  • depth around throne - three dimensions
  • attempt to replicate natural light (color of angels' faces)
  • symmetry of angels
  • hierarchy of scale
  • more realistic represntation of Mary and Christ as humans

3

  • Giotto di Bondone, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Late Medieval/Proto-Renaissance, Fresco
  • focal point = Christ and Mary; not centered
    • all people look toward them - range of emotion
    • diagonal line/depth leading toward them
  • emotional connection between Christ and Mary
  • identity of front figures obscured - departure from medieval
  • increase of private piety - individual practice
  • playing with perspective

4

  • Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban, Late Medieval/Proto-Renaissance, Oil on wood
  • new idea of portraiture - examination of personal power, presence, etc

  • may be a self-portrait (based on frame inscriptions)

  • attention to surface detail and minutia - area around the eyes - wrinkles, skin texture

5

  • Jan van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife, Late Medieval/Proto-Renaissance, Oil on wood
  • less concern for anatomical accuracy
  • abundance of textile = wealth
  • convincing sense of perspective
  • use of symbolism (dog, shoes, oranges)
  • figures in mirror - one is probably van Eyck

6

Woodcut

prints using a subtractive process (removing parts of the material)

7

Fresco

mural-painting technique involving application of permanent lime proof pigments, diluted in water, on freshly laid lime plaster

8

Giornata

how much of a fresco can be painted in one day

9

Triptych

three-part panel painting (altarpiece)

10

polyptych

hinged multipaneled paintings

11

grisaille

monochrome/grayscale painting meant to mimic sculpture

12

  • Gentile da Fabriano, Adoration of the Magi, Quattrocento Italy, Tempera on wood
  • International Style
  • altarpiece
  • commissioned by Strozzi family
  • suggestion of perspective
  • contemporary style of dress
  • flatness of figures
  • concentration of gold and light on Mary & Christ

13

International Style

  • Quattrocento Italy

  • fusion of French Gothic, Sienese (Italy), and northern European (Belgium, Netherlands, Germany) manners

  • Flourished in 14th-15th centuries

  • appealed to aristocracy because of richness of appearance: brilliant color, lavish costumes, intricate ornamentation, elaborate themes

14

Factors contributing to development of Italian Renaissance

  • Quattrocento Italy
  • abundance of artistic talent (especially in Florence)
  • economic prosperity
  • wealthy patronage
  • spread of humanism

15

Humanism

  • emphasis on education and expanding knowledge
  • individual potential and achievement
  • civic responsibility
  • impact on arts
    • subjects selected from classical history and mythology (in addition to Christian subjects)

    • participation in civic and religious commissions

    • revival of portraiture

    • interest in accurately depicting anatomy

    • interest in developing perspectival systems (Brunelleschi - linear perspective)

16

  • Masaccio, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Quattrocento Italy, Fresco
  • convincing perspective - single vanishing point

17

  • Masaccio, Tribute Money, Quattrocento Italy, Fresco
  • circular direction of viewing - organize the space

  • horizon line at eye level

  • Atmospheric perspective (aerial perspective)

  • halos have perspective

  • biblical subject in new mode of representation

18

Atmospheric Perspective

  •  replication of effects of atmosphere on appearance of object as viewed from a distance.
  • As distance between object and viewer increases:
    • contrast between object and background decreases
    • contrast of markings or details within the object decreases
    • colors of object become less saturated and shift toward background color

19

  • Andrea Mantegna, Foreshortened Christ, Quattrocento Italy, Tempera on canvas
  • Foreshortening
  • Christ's body recedes backwards into space
  • intentional manipulation of perspective - head too large, feet too small

20

Foreshortening

technique used in perspectival systems to create the illusion of an object receding strongly into the background, achieved by proportionately contracting in the direction of depth so that an illusion of projection or extension in space is obtained

21

Di sotto in sú

from below upward

22

  • Lorenzo Ghiberti, Sacrifice of Isaac, Quattrocento Italy, Gilded bronze
  • Quatrefoil - “four leaves”; decorative framework popular in Gothic design
  • graceful figures
  • linear perspective?

  • Greek influences

  • psychological drama/intensity

23

  • Donatello, Saint Mark, Quattrocento Italy, Marble
  • sponsored by linen guild
  • contrapposto
  • natural posture
  • cloth moves around/accentuates body
  • negative space around body - looks 3D

24

Contrapposto

Principle of weight shift

25

  • Donatello, David, Quattrocento Italy, Bronze
  • contrapposto
  • revival of classical statuary style - nude male portraiture

  • feminine figure - vulnerability

  • introspective - figure doesn’t look outward at us

  • wears 15th century style hat and shin guards

  • nudity connects to ancient statuary

  • symbol of Florentine independence and flourishing of economy + culture

26

  • Filippo Brunelleschi, Santo Spirito (interior; plan), Quattrocento Italy, Florence
  • Basilican church - structure resembling a Roman basilica, usually entered from one end and with an apse on the other

  • designed with 4 entrances, built with 3 entrances

  • designed with “bumpy” exterior, filled in when built - smooth profile

  • dome-covered crossing square

  • ratios in widths, heights, etc. - mathematical harmonies

27

  • Leon Battista Alberti, west facade Santa Maria Novella, Quattrocento Italy, Florence
  • Patron: Rucellai family

  • Church built in 13th century → retain existing doorways and tombs in facade

  • mathematically balanced and harmonious facade - based on geometry

    • can be set within a perfect square - width = height

    • can divide into 2 equal levels at base of rose window

  • sense innately the balance and harmony

  • incorporates ancient Greek and Roman temple design

    • triangular top - pediment

    • Greek writing

    • columns

    • ornamental panels and decorations

28

High Renaissance

Maturity of artistic developments initiated in 15th century:

  • scientific perspective
  • anatomy
  • interest in classical cultures
  • humanism

Coincidence of careers of 3 Renaissance masters:

  • Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519
  • Raphael, 1483-1520
  • Michelangelo, 1475-1564

Elevation of status of visual art

Promotion of notion of the artist as intellectual thinker rather than manual craftsman

29

  • Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna of the Rocks, High Renaissance, Oil on wood (transferred to canvas)
  • figures radiate light - golden wash to skin

  • emotion in faces - individualized

  • figures interact with each other - unified composition of the group

  • accurate use of light and shading

  • chiaroscuro - creates depth and atmosphere

  • temporally consistent and earthly setting

 

  • nature is the throne of divinity
  • pyramidal composition - movement from 2-D triangle arrangement (early renaissance) to 3-D
  • sfumato

30

Chiaroscuro

subtle play of light and dark