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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (38)
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1

Normal Flora of the Mouth

-Staphylococcus
-Streptococcus
-Neisseria
-Lactobacillus
-Corynebacterium
-Haemophilus

2

Normal Flora of the Nose/Sinus

-Streptococcus
-Haemophilus
-Neisseria
-Anaerobes

3

Normal Flora of the Skin

-Staphylococcus
-Streptococcus
-Corynebacterium
-Propionibacterium

4

Normal Flora of the Eye

-Neisseria
-Staphylococcus
-Streptococcus
-Corynebacterium
-Propionibacterium

5

Normal Flora of the Vagina

-Staphylococcus
-Streptococcus
-Lactobacillus
-Corynebacterium
-Pseudomonas
-Klebsiella

6

Normal Flora of the GIT

-Enterococcus
-Neisseria
-Salmonella, E. Coli
-Enterobacter
-Klebsiella

7

Normal Flora of the Ear

-Middle Ear: Sterile
-External Ear Canal: skin flora

8

Normal Flora of the Urinary Tract

Normally Sterile

9

Normal Flora of the CNS (CSF)

Normally Sterile

10

Normal Flora of the Blood

Normally Sterile

11

Normal Flora of the Bone and Joint

Normally Sterile

12

Staphylococcus Aureus

-Pathogen
-Gram Pos
-Normally in conjuctiva
-Ex// MRSA
-Opportunistic Pathogen: cause of many infections, some have developed resistant organism (MRSA, Methicillin)

13

Streptococcus Pyrogenes A

-Gram Pos
-Pathogen
-Normally in the skin, mucous membranes
-ex// Strep throat, necrotizing fascitis
-Beta-Hemolytic streptococci
-opportunistic

14

Clostridium

-pathogen
-Gram pos
- Normally in GIT
- ex// C.Diff, Tetanus, Botulism
- Bacterial and spore forms, anearobic

15

Enteric Gram Negative Rods

-Pathogen
-Gram Neg
-Normally in GIT
ex// Salmonella, E. Coli, EnteroBacter, Klebsiella
-like humid wet conditions

16

Neisseria

-pathogen
-gram neg
-Normally in skin, GIT, nose
-ex// Gonorrhea, Meningitis
-Gram neg diplococci dangerous to find in CSF (meningitis)
-cause gonnorrhea, meningititis

17

Chlamydia

-pathogen
-Can't be seen,must use PCR
- Not normally found on body
-ex// Respiratory, GU, and eye infection
-requires special transport
-Cannot be seen by gram staining

18

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

-pathogen
-Can't be seen, must use ACID Fast
- Not normally found in body
-Ex// tuberculosis
-Remember the words: ACID FAST Bacilli (AFB)
-requires special media for culture

19

Candida (Yeast)

-pathogen
-Is a fungus,
-Normally found on skin, mouth, vagina, GIT
-ex// Candidiasis

20

Crytococcus Neoformans (Yeast)

-pathogen
-Fungus
-Not normal Flora. In Bird Poop
-Meningitis, Lung infections

21

Aspergillus

-pathogen
-is a fungus
-not normal flora. In dust soil, decomposing stuff
-Nosocomial infections in neutropenic patients

22

Protozoa

-pathogen
-In urine, GIT, blood,
-ex// malaria

23

Viruses

-pathogen
-not normal flora
-many (common cold)
-ex// composed of DNA/RNA + capsid

24

Prions

-Pathogen
-not normal flora
-ex// creutzfe It, Jacob Disease, TSE, Mad Cow
-Can't be cultured

25

Beta-Lactams

-antibiotic
-Inhibits cell wall synthesis
-Side Effects: fever, diarrhea, hematologic, hepatic seizures
- Time Dependent

26

Fluroquinolones

-antibody
-Inhibits DNA synthesis
-Side Effects: GI, C. Diff, Tendon Rupture, QT interval
-Concentration Dependent
-Contradicted for Peds/Warfarin users

27

Aminoglycosides

-antibiotics
-inhibit protein synthesis
-Side effects: renal/ vestibular toxicity
-Concentration dependent

28

Macrolides & Ketolides

-antibiotics
-Inhibit protein synthesis
-Side effects: GI, QT interval
- Time and Conc. dependent.

29

Clindamycin

-antibiotic
-Inhibits protein syntesis
-Side: GI, C. Diff
-Time dependent

30

Metronidazole

-antibiotic
-Cytotoxic via free radicals
-Side: GI, neuropathy, disulfiram effect

31

Vancomycin

-Antibiotic
-inhibit cell wall synthesis
-Side: redman syndrome, (histamine response)

32

Tetracylines

-antibiotic
-inhibit protein synthesis
-Side: GI, esophageal erosion, photosensitivy

33

Sulfonamides

-antibiotics
-inhibit bacterial folic acid pathway
-Side: GI, rash, kernicterus, bone marrow toxicity

34

Enterococcus spp

-enterococci are part of normal fecal flora
-Can colonize oral mucous membranes and skin
-Seldom cause diseas
-Host resistance is low, can spread to sterile sites (urine, blood)
-can cause nosocomial infections when acquire resistance to multiple antibiotics (VRE)
-in pairs (diplococci) or short chains

35

Clostridium

-anaerobic bacteria, will die if exposed to oxygen
-bacterial and spore forms
-must be transported to lab in airtight containers or special transport media
-very resistant to chemical disinfectants

36

PCR

-Polymerase Chain reaction
- DNA amplification techniques

37

Microbes that cause illnesses in humans

-bacteria
-fungi
-parasites
-viruses
-prions

38

Types of Enteric Gram Negative Rods

Pseudomonas (-rod)
Haemophilus Influenzae (-coccobacili)
Neisseria