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1

Anything that takes up space and has mass

Matter

2

A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions

Element

3

Examples of elements:

Gold
Copper
Silver
Oxygen

4

Substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a fixed ratio

Compound

5

Which elements make up 96% of living matter

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen

CHON

6

What are trace elements

Elements required by organisms in only small quantities

7

The smallest units of an element that still retains the property of the element

Atom

8

What is an atom made of

Protons
Neutrons
Electrons

9

Positively charged particles found in the nucleus of an atom

Proton

10

Negatively charged particles found in electron shells around the nucleus of an atom

Electrons

11

Particles with no charge, found in the nucleus of an atom

Neutron

12

Elements that have a varying number of neutrons in its atoms

Isotopes

13

What is the atomic number

The number of protons an element has

14

What is mass number

The sum of protons and neutrons an element has

15

Interactions between the valence electrons of different atoms

Chemical bonds

16

What do chemical bonds do

Hold together atoms to form molecules

17

When valence electrons are shared by two atoms

Covalent bond

18

What are nonpolar covalent bonds

When the electrons being shared are shared equally between two atoms

19

What are polar covalent bonds

There's unequal sharing of electrons

20

What's an ionic bond

The more electronegative atom steals the electron from the less electronegative atom

21

What is an ion

The resulting charged atom after an ionic bond occurs

22

What is a hydrogen bond

Weak bonds between a hydrogen atom and an oxygen or nitrogen

23

Starting materials of a chemical reaction

Reactants

24

Ending materials of a chemical reaction

Products

25

Properties of water

Cohesion and adhesion
Moderation of temp. possible because of water high specific heat
Insulation of bodies of water by floating ice
Water is the universal solvent

26

Linking of like molecules

Cohesion

27

Clinging of one substance to another

Adhesion

28

Amount of heat needed to change the temperature of something by 1°C

Specific heat

29

The substance that something is dissolved in

Solvent

30

The substance being dissolved

Solute

31

Both the solvent and solute together

Solution

32

Water soluble substances

Hydrophilic

33

Substances that cannot be dissolved in water

Hydrophobic

34

What is the range of the pH scale

0-14

35

What do acids have an excess of, and where do they lie in the pH scale

H+ ions
0-7

36

What do bases have an excess of and where do they lie in the pH scale

OH- ions
7-14

37

Where does water lie in the pH scale

7

38

Substances that minimize changes in pH

Buffers

39

All life on earth and all places where life exists

Biosphere

40

Consists of all living and nonliving things in a particular area of the environment with which life interacts

Ecosystem

41

Array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem

Community

42

All the individuals of a species living within the bounds of a specific area

Population

43

Individual living things

Organisms

44

Group of cells that work together, performing a specialized function

Tissue

45

Life's fundamental unit of structure and function

Cells

46

What do all organic compounds contain

Carbon

47

Why is carbon perfect for forming molecules that are large, complex, and diverse

Has 4 valence electrons
Can form up to 4 covalent bonds
The covalent bonds can be Single, double, or triple

48

What are isomers

Molecules with the same formula, but arranged differently

49

What does the different arrangement of isomers do

Makes the molecules different in their biological activities

50

Long chain molecules made of repeating subunits called monomers

Polymers

51

What is created from a dehydration reaction, and from what

Polymers from monomers

52

What occurs in hydrolysis

Water is added to break up larger molecules

53

What is the formula for all carbohydrates

A ratio of 1:2:1 for carbon hydrogen and oxygen

54

What are monosaccharides

The monomers of carbohydrates

55

What are polysaccharides

Polymers of monosaccharides

56

Two functions of polysaccharides

Energy storage
Structural support

57

Examples of energy storage polysaccharides

Starch
Glycogen

58

Examples of structural support polysaccharides

Cellulose
Chitin

59

Are lipids hydrophilic or hydrophobic

Hydrophobic

60

What else are fats called

Triglycerides

61

What are fats made up of

Glycerol and 3 fatty acid molecules

62

Function of lipids

Energy storage
Protection of vital organs
Insulation

63

What do phospholipids make up

Cell membranes

64

What are two types of steroid hormones

Estrogen and testosterone

65

What are proteins made up of

Amino acid monomers

66

What do peptide bonds do and how are they formed

Hold together amino acids
Formed by dehydration synthesis

67

What are the 4 levels to protein structure

Primary structure
Secondary structure
Tertiary structure
Quaternary structure

68

Describe the primary structure of a protein

Unique sequence in which amino acids are linked

69

Describe the secondary structure of a protein

Either alpha helix or beta pleated sheet

70

Describe the alpha helix shape

A coiled shape

71

Describe the beta pleated sheet shape

An accordion shape

72

Describe the tertiary structure of a protein

Globular shape

73

Describe the quaternary structure of a protein

Two or more polypeptide chains into one large protein

74

What happens when a protein is denatured, and what can use it

Protein loses its shape and ability to function

Heat, a change of pH, or other disturbances can cause it

75

What are enantiomers

Molecules with the same atoms, except they are arranged as mirror images of each other

76

What does DNA stand for

Deoxyribonucleic acid

77

What does RNA stand for

Ribonucleic acid

78

What are the monomers of DNA and RNA

Nucleotides

79

What 3 things are nucleotides made up of

Nitrogenous bases
Pentose
Phosphate group

80

Which are the nitrogenous bases

Adenine
Thymine/Uracil
Cytosine
Guanine

81

What is pentode. What is it in DNA, and what is it in RNA

A 5-carbon sugar

Deoxyribose

Ribose

82

What is DNA the molecule of?

Heredity

83

What is the shape of DNA

A double stranded helix

84

How many strands in RNA?

One

85

What is dehydration reaction

When two molecules covalently bond and lose a water molecule

86

Which molecule contains a polar covalent bond

H2O

87

The major class of biological molecules that are not polymers

Lipids

88

Linkages between monomers of proteins

Peptide bonds

89

Structural carbohydrate found in plants

Cellulose

90

Process by which protein conformation is lost or broken down

Denaturation

91

Which macromolecule can be structural parts of the cell, enzymes, or involved in cell movement or communication

Proteins

92

Which macromolecule serves as the fluid interface between the intracellular and extracellular environments

Phospholipids

93

The type of attraction when the partial negative charge at one end of a water molecule is attracted to the partial positive charge of another water molecule

Hydrogen bond

94

Which process synthesizes polymers of carbohydrates and proteins

Dehydration reactions

95

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids

Carboxyl and amine

96

Tremendous variation and unique properties of proteins are most likely a result of what?

Interactions between R groups of the amino acids

97

What makes water an excellent solvent

It can surround and dissolve ionic and polar bonds

98

Characteristics of a prokaryote

Plasma membrane
Ribosome

99

Characteristic of a eukaryote

Plasma membrane
Ribosomes
Membrane bound organelles
Nucleus

100

What domains are prokaryotic cells found in

Bacteria and archae

101

What domain are eukaryotic cells in

Eukarya

102

Where is the single chromosome of a prokaryote found

The nucleoid

103

Where are the chromosomes found in a eukaryotic cell

Nucleus

104

Where are membrane bound organelles found in eukaryotic cells

Cytoplasm

105

What does the plasma membrane do

Forms the boundary for the cell

106

What is selective permeability

Permits the passage of materials in and out of the cell

107

What is the plasma membrane made up of

Phospholipids
Proteins
Carbohydrates

108

What does the nucleus contain

Most of the cells DNA

109

Where is DNA used as a template to make RNA

The nucleus

110

What is the nucleus surrounded by

Nuclear envelope

111

What do nuclear pores do

Control what enters or leaves the nucleus

112

The complex of DNA and protein housed in the nucleus that is formed from chromosomes

Chromatin

113

"Protein factories"

Ribosomes

114

What are ribosomes composed of

rRNA and proteins

115

What are ribosomes the sites of

Protein synthesis

116

Difference between free and bound ribosomes

Free ribosomes float around while bound ribosomes are attached to the ER

117

What does smooth ER do

Synthesize lipids
Metabolism of carbohydrates
Detoxification of drugs or poisons

118

What does rough ER do

Ribosomes make the structure appear rough under microscope

119

What does the Golgi apparatus do

Modifies and transports particles of the ER

120

Enzymes that can digest large molecules

Lysosomes

121

Sites of cellular respiration

Mitochondria

122

What is cellular respiration

Metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels

123

Sites of photosynthesis

Chloroplasts

124

Evidence that both mitochondria and chloroplast share a similar origin

Both have a double membrane
Both have their own ribosomes and circular DNA
Both reproduce independently within the cell

125

What is the purpose of the cytoskeleton

Responsible for the structure, support, motility, and regulating chemical activities in the cytoplasm

126

The largest cytoskeleton fibers

Microtubules

127

What do microtubules do during mitosis and meiosis

Separate the chromosomes

128

What are microfilaments made up of

Actin

129

What are centrosomes

Place where microtubules grow

130

What happens to centrioles

Replicate before cell division

131

What does the cell wall do

Protects and helps maintain shape

132

What are cell walls mostly made of

Cellulose

133

Sections of animal cell membrane where two neighboring cells are fused

Tight junction

134

When cells are taken apart and separated for researchers to be able to identify cell components and study them

Cell fractations

135

What kind of layer do phospholipids form in the plasma membrane, and what does this do

A hydrophobic barrier

Doesn't easily allow hydrophilic molecules to enter the cell, but easily allows hydrophobic molecules to enter

136

What are the functions of carbohydrates in the plasma membrane

Cell-cell recognition

137

What do aquaporins do

Allows water to move through the transport proteins

138

Passive diffusion

When a substance travels down the concentration gradient. Requires no energy to be used

139

Diffusion of water across a selective permeable membrane

Osmosis

140

What happens in an isotonic solution

Water crosses the membrane at the same rate in both directions

141

What happens in a hypertonic solution

Water rushes out of the cell. The cell shrivels and may die

142

What happens in a hypotonic solution

Water rushes into the cell. Cell may burst

143

When transport proteins help ionic and polar molecules pass across the membrane

Facilitated diffusion

144

What is active transport

When substances move against the concentration gradient, from where there's less concentration, to more. This requires energy

145

What does the sodium-potassium pump do

Pumps sodium out and potassium into the cell

146

What does exocytosis do

Expels macromolecules

147

What does endocytosis do

Takes in macromolecules

148

What is amphipathic

When something has a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region

149

Give an example of something that is amphipathc

A phospholipid

150

When a cell engulfs a particle

Phagocytosis

151

When a cell "gulps" droplets of extracellular fluid

Pinocytosis

152

Target cells detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell

Reception

153

Conversion of the signal in cell signaling to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response

Transduction

154

The specific cellular response to the signal molecule in cell signaling

Response

155

A signal molecule

Ligand

156

What turns on and off signals in cell signaling in proteins

On: kinases
Off: phosphatases

157

Controlled "cell suicide"

Apoptosis

158

Enzymes that can rapidly remove phosphate groups from proteins. Important to turn off signaling

Protein phosphatases

159

Life of a cell from when its first formed from a dividing parent cell, to when it divides itself into two cells

The cell cycle

160

All cells except gametes

Somatic cells

161

Sperm and egg cells

Gametes

162

Difference between gametes and somatic cells

Gametes are haploid (have half the number of chromosomes)

163

What do chromosomes consist of when they are replicated

Sister chromatids

164

Division of a cells nucelus

Mitosis

165

Division of a cells cytoplasm

Cytokinesis

166

Process where cells genetic information duplication takes place

Interphase

167

The two processes of growth in interphase

G1 and g2 phase

168

Process of interphase where chromosomes are duplicated

S phase

169

Phases of mitosis

Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis

170

Process in prophase

Chromatin becomes tightly coiled
Nucleoli disappear
Mitotic spindle begins to appear
Nuclear envelope begins to fragment

171

What holds together sister chromatids

A centromere

172

Process in metaphase

Microtubules move the chromosomes toward the metaphase plate
Centrioles go to the opposite polls

173

Process in anaphase

Sister chromatids are pulled apart
Both ends of the set have equal chromosomes

174

Process in telophase

Nuclear envelope reforms around the chromosomes

175

Process in cytokinesis

Cytoplasm of the cell gets divided (cleavage furrow formed)

176

What process do prokaryotes replicate

Binary fission

177

What controls the cell cycle

The cell cycle control system

178

The major checkpoints in interphase

G1 checkpoint
G2 checkpoint
M checkpoint

179

A mass of abnormal cells

Tumor

180

Tumor that remains at the original site

Benign tumor

181

Tumor that interferes with the functions of one or more organs

Malignant tumor

182

When cancer cells spread throughout other parts of the body, creating more tumors

Metastasis

183

An organelle that is extensive, has folded membranes, and is abundant in cells that detoxify poisons

Smooth ER

184

An organelle with a cis and trans face, which acts as the packaging and secreting center of the cell

Golgi apparatus

185

Cells not found in red blood cells, but present in large numbers in muscle cells

Mitochondria

186

Large membrane bound structures that contain hydrolysis enzymes and are found predominantly in animal cells

Lysosomes

187

Which component molecules of the plasma membrane is most important in the reception phase of cell signaling

Protein

188

What uses passive transport to move materials across the cell membrane

Carbon dioxide across the cell membrane

189

In cell signaling, how is the flow of specific ions regulated

Opening and closing of ligand gated ion channels

190

A protein on the cytoplasmic side of a membrane that becomes activated by a receptor protein

G protein

191

Can activate a protein by transferring a phosphate group to it

Protein kinase

192

Why are second messengers used in signal transduction pathways

To relay the message from the inside of the membrane throughout the cytoplasm

193

What would happen if cytokinesis did not occur

Daughter cells would have two complete sets of chromosomes

194

Manages the material and energy resources of the cell

Metabolism

195

What does catabolic pathway do

Releases energy by breakdown of molecules

196

What does anabolic pathway do

Absorbs energy to build molecules

197

The capacity to do work

Energy

198

What kind of energy do things that are moving use

Kinetic energy

199

What kind of energy do objects at rest possess.

Potential energy

200

Amount of chemical energy a molecule possesses

Chemical energy

201

Is chemical energy kinetic or potential

Potential

202

Study of energy transformation that occur in matter

Thermodynamics

203

What's the first law of thermodynamics

Energy can be transferred but not created or destroyed

204

Symbol for change in free energy

(Triangle) G

205

A reaction in which energy is released

Exergonic reacrion

206

Do exergonic reactions occur spontaneously?

Yes

207

A reaction that requires energy in order to proceed

Endergonic reaction

208

Primary source of energy for cells

ATP

209

The result when ATP transfers one phosphate group through hydrolysis

ADP

210

Substances that change the rate of a reaction without being altered in the process

Catalysts

211

Macromolecules that are biological catalysts

Enzymes

212

The amount of energy needed to start a reaction

Activation energy

213

The reactant that an enzyme acts on

Substrate

214

Part of the enzyme that binds to the substrate

Active site

215

The result of the enzyme-catalyst reaction

Product

216

What things can affect the way an enzyme acts

Temperature
Shape
pH

217

What do some enzymes need in order to function

Cofactors

218

Organic cofactors

Coenzymes

219

Inhibitors that compete with the substrate for the active site on the enzyme

Competitive inhibitors

220

What do noncompetitive inhibitors do

Bind do another part of the enzyme which changes its shape and renders it nonfunctional

221

Partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen

Fermentation

222

When oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with organic fuel

Aerobic respiration

223

What is the primary molecule used in cellular respiration

Glucose

224

How does cellular respiration work? (How the molecules get transferred)

Glucose and oxygen get transformed into carbon dioxide, water and energy

225

What happens in redox reactions

Electrons are transferred from one reactant to another

226

What is the loss of one or more electrons called

Oxidation

227

What is the gain of one or more electrons called

Reduction

228

3 stages of cellular respiration

Glycolysis
Citric acid cycle
Oxidative phosphorylation

229

What happens in glycolysis

Glucose is broken down

230

What is glucose broken down into in glycolysis

Two pyruvate

231

What is the net energy gain in glycolysis

2 ATP
2NADH

232

What does pyruvate become after glycolysis

Acetyl CoA

233

What is the waste product of glucose being broken down

Carbon dioxide

234

What are the products of the citric acid cycle

4 carbon dioxide
6 NADH
2 FADH2
2 ATP

235

What powers the electron transport chain

The electrons carried by NADH and FADH2

236

Total average ATP yield per glucose molecule

30-32

237

Generates ATP without oxygen using an electron transport chain

Anaerobic respiration

238

When pyruvate is converted to ethanol

Alcohol fermentation

239

Pyruvate is reduced and lactate is formed as a waste product

Lactic acids fermentation

240

"Self feeders". Are known as the producers

Autotrophs

241

Consumers. Live on compounds produced by other organisms

Heterotrophs

242

Specific sites of photosynthesis in plant cells

Chloroplasts

243

A dense fluid-filled area in chloroplasts

Stroma

244

Network of interconnected membranous sacs in the stroma

Thylakoids

245

Light absorbing pigment that drives photosynthesis and give plants their green color

Chlorophyll

246

Where do light reactions occur

The thylakoids

247

What are the net products of light reactions

NADPH
ATP
Oxygen

248

What are the particles of light called

Photons

249

Substance that absorbs light

Pigments

250

A graph plotting a pigments light absorption

Absorption spectrum

251

Graphs that show the effectiveness of wavelength of light

Action spectrum

252

The groups of pigment molecules that absorb photons of light

Photosystems

253

The two parts of phototsystems

Light harvesting complex
Reaction center

254

Process by which DNA direct synthesis of proteins

Gene expression

255

What is transcription

Synthesis of RNA using a DNA strand

256

Where does transcription occur

The nucleus

257

What does mRNA do

Carries the message of DNA to the ribosome to make the RNA strand

258

What is translation

Production of a polypeptide chain by the mRNA

259

The DNA strand that is used during transcription to make the mRNA

Template strand

260

The mRNA base triplets

Codons

261

What is RNA polymerase

Enzyme that separates the two DNA strands to begin transcription

262

The DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attaches to begin transcription

Promoter

263

The DNA sequence that signals the end of transcription

Terminator

264

3 steps of transcription

Initiation
Elongation
Termination

265

What gets added to the RNA after transcription

A 5' cap and a poly-A tail

266

What happens during RNA splicing

Introns are removed

267

The "thing" that splice together exons and removed introns

Spliceosome

268

What does snRNA do

Speeds the process of RNA splicing

269

When RNA serves a catalytic role

Ribozyme

270

What does tRNA do

Helps elongate the polypeptide chain by bringing amino acids to the ribosome

271

What does a tRNA have that lets it read the codons

Anticodon

272

What are the sites located in the ribosome

P
A
E

273

What is the P site in a ribosome

Location where a tRNA is held until it gets moved to the A site

274

What is the A site in a ribosome

Where the tRNA adds the amino acid into the polypeptide chain

275

What is the E site in a ribosome

Where the tRNA exits the ribosome

276

What are the three stages in translation

Initiation
Elongation
Termination

277

What is the start codon for translation

AUG

278

What does gene methylation do

Makes DNA more tightly packaged, which reduces gene expression

279

What does his tone acetylation do

Acetyl groups are added to amino acids and makes chromatin less packed

280

Process by which cells become specialized

Cell differentiation

281

What does morphogenesis do

Gives an organism its shape

282

Series of events that leads to observable differentiation of a cell

Determination

283

Cancer causing genes

Oncogenes

284

Genes that code for normal cell growth

Protooncogenes

285

Branch of biology for naming and classifying life

Taxonomy

286

What did Charles Lyell thing about earth

It has geologic processes that have shaped the planet over time

287

Heritable characteristics that enhance an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments

Adaptations

288

Process by which species are modified by humans

Artificial selection

289

When characteristics in related species are similar even though they have different functions

Homology

290

Organs that have little to no use to the organism. Served a purpose to their ancestors

Vestigial organs

291

Shared characteristics in the molecular level

Molecular homologies

292

What is convergent evolution

When two organisms develop similarities as they adapted to similar environmental challenges, but not because of common ancestry

293

The study of fossils

Paleontology

294

The only source of new genes and new alleles

Mutations

295

Point mutation

A change in one nucleotide base in a gene

296

What are the three types of "shuffling" of genes in sexual reproduction

Cross over
Independent assortment
Fertilization

297

Study of how populations change genetically over time

Population genetics

298

Group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and reproduce

Population

299

What is the hardy weinberg formula

P^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1

300

What does q mean in the hardy weinberg formula

Frequency of the dominant allele

301

What does q mean in the hardy weinberg formula

Frequency of the recessive allele

302

What does p^2 mean in the hardy weinberg formula

Frequency of homozygous dominant

303

What does q^2 mean in the hardy weinberg formula

Frequency of homozygous recessive

304

What does 2pq mean in the hardy weinberg formula

Frequency of heterozygous

305

Describe natural selection

Organism that are better suited to their environment have a higher chance of survival, so their genes get passed down at a higher rate than those that aren't

306

What are two examples of genetic drift

Founders effect
Bottleneck effect

307

Explain founders effect

A few individuals get isolated from the main population, and they establish a new gene pool different form the gene pool of the old population

308

Explain bottleneck effect

There's a sudden change in the environment that reduces the size of the population. This changes the gene pool

309

Describe gene flow

Change of the gene flow due to the addition or subtraction of an individual(s) to a population

310

Explain direction selection

One of the two extremes are favored

311

Explain disruptive selection

Both extremes are favored, not the intermediate

312

Explain stabilizing selection

Removes extreme variants from the population and keeps the intermediate ones

313

What is sexual dimorphism

Differences in the two sexes

314

Process by which new species arise

Speciation

315

Microevolution

Change in alleles and genetic makeup

316

Macroevolution

Pattern of evolutionary change in species

317

Allopatric speciation

Population forms a new species because they were geographically isolated

318

Sympathies speciation

A small part of the population forms a new species even though they aren't geographically isolated

319

Polyploidy

More than two sets of chromosomes

320

When many species come from a single common ancestor

Adaptive radiation

321

How long ago was earth formed

4.6 billion years ago

322

Were the earliest living organisms prokaryotic or eukaryotic

Prokaryotic

323

What was the endosymbiotic hypothesis

Mitochondria and chloroplasts were small prokaryotes that began living with larger cells

324

Genes that determine the location and organization of body parts

Homeotic genes