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Flashcards in midterm Deck (54)
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basilica structure
1. transcept
2. side asiles
3. nave

-apse = at the most far end of the church, behind the transcept, where the altar is located
1. nave = long hallway to the transcept
2. transcept = at the far end of the church walking from the entrance - where major events take place


basilica structure
1. transcept
2. side asiles
3. nave

-apse = at the most far end of the church, behind the transcept, where the altar is located
1. nave = long hallway to the transcept
2. transcept = at the far end of the church walking from the entrance - where major events take place


the ground plane has 3 grounds and a picture plane

middle ground



when objects/bodies appear perpendicular to the picture plane. It makes it seem like the object recedes into 3-d space


mass vs. volume

mass = the illusion of tangible, solid weight and presence (bodies appear to take up space)

-volume = empty space


Leon Battista Alberti,
Sant’Andrea in Mantua,
1472 and after

vs Pantheon in Rome

1. Similarities
-same architecture styles in pediments, entabiature, and pilatics
- Roman triumphal arch triumphs Christ's resurrection
2. differences
- made out of bricks rather than stone


Linear Perspective

a technique used to create depth on a flat surface

1. clue: patterned floors and ceilings, lines in the walls or side of the landscape to recognize linear perspective


vanishing point

the point where all lines connect to



receding lines that move away from you


horizon line

a horizontal line that acts like an anchor in the picture, which tells where the ground ends and the sky begin


Atmospheric perspective

as objects get farther away you see them in less detail, in softer focus, and in duller colors. (Madonna of the Rocks and Da Vinci)


Atmospheric perspective

as objects get farther away you see them in less detail, in softer focus, and in duller colors. (Madonna of the Rocks and Da Vinci)


contrast is the greatest for () objects.

distant objects have less contrast in them and less to their surroundings


Upper Church, Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi, 1228-1253

1. understand the architecture


Lamentation ,

1. Giotto, at Arena Chapel, 1305-06
2. fresco
3. John spreads out his arms & angels flying in the background out of the picture--> uses foreshortening to create space
4. Mary introduces great volume in her hair
5. the shape of the rock functions as an error
6. early stages of dimension + attempt of linear perspective


Sala of the Nove (Room of the Nine),

1. Ambrogio Lorenzetti, 1338-40
2. fresco
3. shows an allegory (wisdom --> justice --> harmony --> citizens of sienna --> commune of sienna)
4. the results of good govn't and bad govn't
5. advertisement and reminder of council's decision


Madonna and Child,

1. Cimabue, 1280
2. tempra on panel
3. the icon tradition comes from Byzantine ages
4. mimics St Luke's painting of Madonna
4. linear = figures designed by strong outlines with light shadows
5. increasing naturalism (proportion + depth + perspective + how are figures defined)
-elongated legs (proportion)
-face (front) +legs (top-down) +showing different views at the same time --> creates space and depth


Ognissanti (Every Saint) Madonna,

1. Giotto, 1306-10
2. tempra on panel on wood
3. very similar to Cimabue
4. monument physical presence by modeling (using light and shadow)
5. creates space by making a canopy
6. fits the theme of increasing naturalism


January page from
Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry,
(Book of hours)

1. Limbourg Brothers, 1413-16
2. type = book of hours (made for regular people who wish to corporate monastic rituals in daily life --> mimic the schedule of monks)
3. fusion of Greek culture/ past with the contemporary world
4. strong attention to materialistic reality
5. feudalism (wealth based on land where aristocrats name all the land)
6. trade brings money to non-aristocrats (1300=1400), which allows a new 'middle class' to grow


Mérode Triptych or the Annunciation Triptych,

1. Robert Campin, ca. 1425-30
2. oil
3. triptych = altarpiece at home
4. this focuses on a single point in life
5. 1500 Flemish interior
6. every object is a symbol (Madonna lily = purity; candle smokes out = divinity arrives)


Arnolfini Wedding? Portrait,

1. Jan Van Eyck, 1434
2. oil
3. Italian merchant and his wife
4. one candle = god is present
5. dog = fidol = loyalty and fidelity
6. mirror reflects the audience
7. naturalism + details on drapery and clothing


St. Luke Drawing the Virgin,

1.Rogier van der Weyden, ca. 1435-40
2. silverpoint
3. Northern Renaissance uses silver pointing
4. fusion of the past and the real world
5. religious picture --> classic topic in the 1400's


Ghent Altarpiece (closed),

1. Hubert and Jan van Eyck, 1432
2. polyptych = many panels
3. lily = Madonna's purity
4. Mary's response written up-side down = God is listening
5. candlestick = moment of Annunciation
6. the partons are not directly looking at anything, which demonstrates their holy visions


Ghent Altarpiece (open)

1. Deity (God sacrifices son to redeem humanity)
-revelations (gemstones in heaven - connection)
-step on crown = king of kings
-septor = transparency and luxury (great details)

2. Adam & Eve:
-fig = modesty
-fruit = downfall of humanity
-less color = mercy of god +sin of human god

3.bottom pannel (Eucharist)


Descent from the Cross,

1. Rogier van der Weyden, 1435
2. oil on wood
3. shape of panel = cross = symbolism
4. modern devotion = audience mimic the real event and holy experience
5. emotionally intensifying
6.gold background pushes characters to the foreground
7. using the richness of clothes to increase the vision of the number of characters on the right
8.skull = earth splits, Adam's bones come out


The Garden of Earthly Delights (open)

1. Hieronymus Bosch, 1480-1515
2. left side
- touch = key of the creation scene
- God holding Eve and Adam
-rabbits = sexuality & fertility
-humans have a special relationship with God
3. center
-men running around the whole of women = subdued to animal desire
- men vs. rat = diceptiveness

4. right hell
-animals have human actions = torturing men
5. creation --> hedonistic --> hell
6. shows danger of the world
7. humanity fail to resist worldly pleasures and tree of life


Etienne Chevalier and St. Stephen / Madonna and Child,

1. Jean Fouquet, 1450
2. tempra on panel
3. red fabric - expensive
4. st.steven = martyr (punished for stoning)
5. color reversed from Steven's panel to Madonna
6. pale skin = living vs. those who live in a different world + high forehead
7. the child points at Steven
8. signed on the back to increase value


Sacrifice of Isaac, 1402-3/

1. Guiberti
-unifying force (same direction of donkey and arm)
-body = mature, more roman taste
-the father looks more reluctant
-graceful lamb
2. Brunellochio
-angel holds Abraham' arm
-lack of unity
-ancient roman spinario (Thorn puller) from the Roman sculpture.
3. both have a lamb, burrowed Roman culture, and produces the most dramatic moment


Dome of Florence Cathedral, (attributed to Filippo Brunelleschi), 1420-36

1. 1420
2. centering = scaffolding that holds blocks of arch in place
3. spiral/ herringbone patterns of bricks = stables completed arch by itself
4. 2 layered-dome = interior + exterior to light up the building with hollow space btw. the layers
5. horizontal wings (massive chains embedded to push against the horizontal force)
6. more collaboration (both present and future generations)


(di Bartolomeo),
Palazzo Medici,
c. 1445

1. Medici family tears down many other family houses to show power
2. thick cut stones, look aggressive and defensive
3. garden in the back, courtyard in the front



1. Donatello, 1450
2.5ft, bronze, statue
3. the only armor he needs is God's favor, where David stands for Florentine's identity
4. David's facial expression - foretells his bright future as king
5. contrapposto = pose where one leg has the weight and the other is relaxed, which creates a feeling of movement and life in a body
6. Roman sculpture


Sant’Andrea in Mantua,
vs Pantheon, 118-28, Rome

1. Leon Battista Alberti? 1472 onward
2. large similarities with Pantheon in Rome (same pediment, entablature, pilastics)
-Roman triumph arch
-triumph of Jesus' resurrection
-temple front, triumphal arch, an ancient Roman basilica
3. fusion of classical Roman architecture with Christian
4. imitate stone using brick


Camera Picta

1. Mantegna, 1565-74
2. fresco
3. lower wall consists of patron, evolution of landscape in the background, and people waiting in front of the palace to demonstrate the patron's significance
4. ceiling has an oculus (Roman)
5. angles peaking and peeing --> human
6. roman burrowing and individualism


Lamentation of the Dead Christ

1. Mantegna, 1480
2. painting
2.being part of the bigger scene
3.absortion of the Northern Renaissance painting - naturalism
4. strong, dramatic, foreshortening


The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John, and Two Donors,

1.Massacio, ca. 1425
2. fresco
3. color balance (alternating colors of red and blue; unifies the scene)
4. triumphal arch that celebrates Jesus's resurrection.
5. linear perspective = create depth on a flat surface (vanishes at Christ's foot)
6. trinity (father, god the son, holy spirit (dove))
7.God fully in human form


Brancacci Chapel, The Tribute Money,

1. Masaccio, 1425

2. fresco
3. continuous narrative = confrontation, fishing, paying taxes
4. follow the law o the church and land (cattasto = new land tax)
5. linear perspective (focal point at Christ's head)
6. used shadow to create depth
7.tax collector where Christ needs to pay taxes


Madonna of the Rocks (Paris),

1.Leonardo da Vinci, 1485
2. painting
3.fantasy landscape in the background that demonstrates atmospheric perspective (farthest the blurriest + transition of color)
4. protecting hand hovering around the child creates space
5. the angel points at John to show what it takes to go to heaven
6. highest level of Renaissance art


The Last Supper,

1. Leonardo da Vinci, 1495-98
2. dry fresco because Leonardo wants longer time to work (apply dry pigments to plaster)
3. theatrical staging includes showing emotion + color mirroring of Christ and John + isolation of Judas
4. bread and wine = Eucharist
5. linear perspective = focal point at Christ's head
6. more emotional expression, dramatic moments, and creation of space


Mona Lisa,

1. Leonardo, 1503-05
2. oil painting on oak panel
3. dressing: high hairline, transparent veil around hair
4. shoulder turned 3/4 position to create depth and movement
5. sfumato = to evaporate like smile
6. direct look at the audience makes her accessible
7. hazy of the smile



1. Michaelangelo 1498
2. pieta = statue of pity ( Mary laments dead son in her arm)
3. sculpture made with marble
3. highly realistic with bent reality (oversized legs hips = proportional distortion)
4. Mary stands for the church (protective, strong, nurturing, sits on a rock (Peter), sadness = salvation)
5. details of the veil



1. Michaelangelo, 1501-04
2. colausses = big sculpture
3.celebrates Italy's victory over the French, which satisfies the Florentine's identity with David
4. captures the moment before the fight
5. Roman culture = nudity, contrapposto, 8 heads = total length of the body
6. contemporary burrowing = Donatello's David, similar face
7. consideration of the audience's perspective with disproportional hands


Sistine Chapel Ceiling

1. Michaelangelo, 1508 - 1512
2. fresco
3. uses prophets to divide up the organization and scenes, starts from left to right
4. demonstrates the artist's learning curve with gradual increase of bolder colors, graphic outlines, fewer but bigger figures, and more dramatic gestures


Creation of Adam,

1. Michaelangelo, 1511
2. fresco on wall
3. describes the moment just before God touches Adam
4. moment of anticipation, as in David
5. Adam's torso resembles Roman Bordevero torso in the court
6. God has a human body
7. the location of the painting, right above where the pope would sit


The School of Athens, Stanza della Segnatura,

1. Raphael, 1508-11
2. fresco on wall
3. describes the dialogue between philosophers
4. setting: painted architecture with Roman vault and triumphal arch to suggest Roman burrowing.
5. linear perspective with focus point in Plato and Aristotle.
6. Uses gestures to suggest philosophies (Plato the transcendent, Aristotle points at the ground for the tangibles)
7. contains full-scale cartoon
8. the masculinity and the similar face of Michaelangelo's involvement


Madonna and Saints (Sacra Conversazione)

1. Giovanni Bellini, 1505
2. large oil on panel
3. dome created a 3D space --》puts characters at the front of the space
4. uses chiaroscuro to show space in atmospheric perspective (Da Vinci)
5. marries shimmering gold and 3-D realism, emphasizing the shape, volume, and mass
6. reflects the aesthetics of Venetian, using marbles and mosaic to suit changes in light


Pesaro Altarpiece

1. Titian, 1526
2. oil on panel
3. contains architectural setting from Bellini
4. setting has expansive space in the background
5. manipulates the pyramidal composition which creates more movement and action without losing the hierarchy
6.considers the audience's view by allowing Madonna to look at them
7. historical context: the patron has won a battle against the Turks, Titian uses art to recommend the victory to Peter and Mary
8. fusion of the holy people and real world


Venus of Urbino

1. Titian, 1538
2. oil on panel
3. close imitation of his teacher Giorgione
4 asymmetric composition = diagonal
5. space pushed into the foreground with a depiction of arousal as Venus touches her private parts
6. curtain functions as an arrow to guide viewers on Venus
7. shadows have COLORS!
8. cassone = wedding chest (wedding context to the painting)
9. location of the painting explains the painting's purpose =suggest lust


Descent from the Cross /

1. Rosso Fiorentino, 1521
2. oil on wood hanging on the altarpiece (Eucharist)
3. Christ's body is elongated out of the space with great masculinity
4. God instructs Christ's friends to release him
5. pleasure on Christ's dead face --> methodology (has fulfilled his purpose + relieved on his redemption of humanity)
6.St John is out of scale
7. linear, sharper lines.


Madonna and Child with Angels
(Madonna with the long neck),

1. Parmigiano, 1535,
2. oil on wood
3. wide hips, tiny toes, long and boneless hands, elongated neck = distortion
4. influence from Pieta = same strap on the clothes
-distortion of space (shoulder in the background + tiny prophets at the right-hand corner)
5. this is an art for art, which allows the educated to understand primary pieces the artist draws from
6. poses an intellectual game


Fall of the Giants,

1. Giulio Romano, 1530-32
3. described the giants vs god from Olympus
4. the moment when the battle turns
5. giants and columns fall on the audience
6. floor constructed with uneven tiles to suit the main room --> merging reality with imagination



the pigment that is suspended to egg yolk
2. used in fresco


fresco knowledge
1. Buon fresco/ true fresco
2. scaffolding
3.sinopia drawing
4. cartoons
6. Giornata
7. fresco a secco

pouncing = transfer a drawing to a wet plaster for a fresco


5 qualities of Flemish art

1. colorfulness
2. organization ( rectangular)
3. symbolism
4. careful looking after 100 times
5. fusion of holiness and real world


characteristics of early Italian art

1. Roman influence
2. thrive under rivalry and competition (doing even better)
3. space depth and proportion
4. increasing naturalism
5. drawing influences from other artists
6. religious paintings
7. patrons are wealthy and religious figures
8. pyramidal structure on showing hierarchy
9. fusion of holiness and real world

High Renaissance
8. humanification of religious figures (Michaelangelo's Adam)