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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (76):
1

closed system

does not depend on its environment, sealed off from the outside world

2

open system

interacts with the environment to survive; consumes and exports resources

3

technical core

people who do the basic work of the organization

4

top management

provides direction, strategy, goals

5

middle management

implementation, coordination and mediating

6

technical support

helps organizations adapt to environment through scanning and creating innovations

7

administrative support

responsible for the smooth operation and upkeep of the organization

8

6 structural dimensions

formalization
specialization
hierarchy of authority
centralization
professionalism
personnel ratios

9

formalization

the amount of written documentation in the organization

10

specialization

the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into separate jobs

11

hierarchy of authority

who reports to whom and the span of control for each manager

12

centralization

hierarchal level that has authority to make a deciison

13

professionalism

level of formal education and training of employees

14

personnel ratios

deployment of people to various functions and departments

15

5 contextual dimensions

goals and strategy
environment
size
culture
techonology

16

contextual dimensions

characterize the whole organization - the organizational setting that influences and shapes the structural dimensions

17

structural dimensions

provide labels to describe the internal characteristics of an organization - create basis for measuring and comparing organization

18

stakeholder approach

balance the needs and interests of various stakeholders in setting goals and striving for effectiveness

19

chaos theory

organizations should be viewed more as natural systems than well-oiled predictable machines

20

learning organizaition

promote communication so everyone is engaged in identifying and solving problems

21

6 s of principle of fit

strategy
structure
systems

skills
staff
style

22

social constructionist perspective

the purpose of business is whatever people decide it is - business is a social invention

23

3 types of goals

official
operative
informal

24

4 porter's competitive strategies

low cost leadership
focused low cost leadership
differentiation
focused differentiation

25

differentiation

organizations that attempt to distinguish their products or services from others in the industry e.g. roots

26

low cost leadership

increase market share by emphasizing low cost compared to competitors e.g. walmart

27

4 miles & snow strategies

prospector: innovate
defender: stability
analyzer: both
reactor: respond to threats as they come

28

3 contingency effectiveness approaches

resources-based
internal-process
goal approach

29

resources-based approach

assumes organizations must be successful in obtaining resources in order to be effective

30

internal-process approach

effectiveness is measured as internal organization health and efficiency

31

goal approach

effectiveness consists of identifying an organization's output goals

32

competing values model

tries to balance a concern with carious parts of the organization, not just one

33

4 emphasis of competing values model

human relations emphasis
internal process emphasis
open systems emphasis
rational goal emphasis

34

goals of human relationship emphasis

human resource development, cohesion, morale, training

35

internal process emphasis

stability, equilibrium, info management, communication

36

open systems emphasis

growth and resource acquisition, flexibility, readiness, external evaluation

37

rational goal emphasis

productivity, efficiency, profit,

38

4 components of balanced scorecard

financial performance
customer service
internal business process
potential for learning and growth

39

3 key components of organizaitonal structure

designates formal reporting relationships
group together individuals into departments
design systems for effective communication

40

centralized decision making

problems and decisions are funneled to top levels of hierarchy for resolution

41

decentralized decision making

decision authority is pushed down to lower organizational levels

42

3 vertical linkages

hierarchy
rules and plans
vertical info system

43

vertical info systems

periodic reports, written info, computer-based communications distributed to managers

44

5 horizontal linkages

information systems
direct contact
task forces
full time integrators
teams

45

information systems

routinely exchange info about problems, opportunities, activities, or deciisons

46

task forces

temporary committee composed of reps from each unit affected by a problem

47

teams

permanent task forces for large scale projects, major innovations, or new product lines

48

3 situations to use matrix

pressure to share scarce resources across product lines
enviro pressure for 2+ critical outputs
enviro domain is complex and unstable

49

4 symptoms of structural deficiency

decision making is delayed
org does not respond innovatively to changing environment
goals not being met
too much conflict

50

buffer roles

absorb uncertainty from the environment and help technical core (e.g. HR)

51

boundary spanning roles

link and coordinate an organization with key elements in the external analysis (e.g. competitive analysis)

52

differentiation between departments

the differences in cognitive and emotional orientations among managers in different functional departments

53

structure of high uncertainty companies

organic, teamwork, decentralized
many deparments
many integrating roles
extensive planning, forecasing

54

2 strategies to manage resources in environment

establishing inter-organizational linkages
controlling the environmental domain

55

coopation

leaders from important sectors in the environment are made part of the organization

56

interlocking directorate

formal linkage that occurs when a member of the BOD of one company sits in on BOD of another - direct vs. indirect

57

executive recruitment

transferring executives

58

4 ways to control the external environment

change of domain
political activity, regulation
trade associations
illegitimate activities

59

5 ways to establish inter-organizational linkages

ownership
formal strategic alliances
coopation, interlocking directorates
executive recruitment
advertising and pr

60

3 factors that trustworthiness is based on

competence - can they help us
benevolence - do they want to help us
integrity - are they ethical

61

4 models of interorganizational relationships

resource dependence
population ecology
collaborative network
institutionalism

62

resource dependence

dissimilar, competitive
e.g. silicon valley "no recruit" pact

63

collaborative networks

dissimilar, coopertative
e.g. sustainable waterloo region

64

population ecology

similar, competitive
e.g. radioshack

65

institutionalism

similar, cooperative
- isomophism
e.g. microsoft copying apple store layouts

66

3 dimensions of isomorphism

mimetic - uncertainty, copying
coercive - political influence, laws and rules
normative - common training, accounting standards

67

3 stages of population ecology

variation - selection - retention
*must find organizational niche with proper organizational form

68

2 critical functions of culture

integrate members so they know how to relate to one another
help organization adapt to external environment by meeting its goals

69

4 types of rites

passage - orientation
enhancement - awards night
renewal - development activities
integration - office parties

70

4 types of cultures

adaptability
clan
mission
bureaucratic

71

adaptability

focus on external environment through flexibility and change to meet customer needs

72

mission culture

emphasis on clear vision of the organization's purpose and on the achievement of goals to achieve the purpose

73

clan culture

focus on the involvement of members and on rapidly changing expectations of the external environment

74

bureaucratic culture

internal focus and a consistency orientation for a stable environment

75

culture strength

the degree of agreement among members of an organization about the importance of specific values

76

subcultures

develop to reflect the common problems, goals, and experiences that members of a team share