Midterm Flashcards Preview

OB > Midterm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm Deck (62):
1

Personality Factors “Big 5”

Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
Openness to new experience
Extraversion

2

Internal vs external disposition

Internal : self control
External : control by the situation of others

3

Type A disposition

Aggressive, constantly moving, impatient with rates, dislike downtime, enjoys multitasking

4

Type B disposition

Relax without guilt, no need to discuss achievements, play for fun, not worried about time urgencies

5

4 Temperaments

Artisan
Guardian
Rational
Idealist

6

What is Learning?

A relatively permanent change in behavioural potential that occurs due to practice or experience

7

Operant Learning Theory

-Skinner box ( click button, get reward)
- subject is interested in the consequences of his actions

8

Positive reinforcement

Application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour

9

Negative reinforcement

Removal of a stimulus from a situation that in turn, increases the probability of some behaviour

10

Reinforcement Strategies

Immediate
Delayed
Continuous
Partial

11

Why can punishment be ineffective?

Only indicates what behaviour is wrong, does not suggest a new appropriate behaviour

12

6 tips to make punishment more effective

1. Provide an acceptable alternative
2. Limit the emotions involved
3. Make sure it is aversive
4. Do not reward unwanted behaviour before or after
5. Do not inadvertently punish desirable behaviour
6. Punish immediately or at a later time (reinstate problem

13

Performance Feedback is most effective when it is:

- conveyed in a positive manner
- delivered immediately after observing performance
- represented visually
- specific to the behaviour that is being targeted for feedback

14

Social Cognitive Theory

-selecting our behaviour based on observations of other people’s actions & the consequences of those action
- cognitive process

15

Self-efficacy

Beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task
- influences the types of activities people choose to perform ( amount of effort, stress)

16

Self-Regulation, and how it works

-Process in which people use learning principles to manage their own behaviour
- Discrepancy Reduction
- Discrepancy Production

17

3 Components of Perception

1. A perceiver
2. A target
3. A situation

18

Perceptual Defence

-The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions

19

Social Identity Theory

Based on our perception that we belong to various social groups

20

Personal Identity

Based on our unique personal characteristics

21

Bruner’s model of Perceptual Process

1. Unfamiliar target
2. Openness to target cues
3. Target categorized
4. Cue selectivity
5. Categorization strengthened

22

Biases in Person Perception

- Primacy & recency effects
- reliance on central traits
- implicit personality theories
- projection
- stereotyping

23

Attributions

The process by which causes and motives are assigned explain people’s behaviour

24

Potential Biases in Attribution

- Fundamental attribution error
- Actor-Observer effect
- Self-Serving bias

25

Managing Diversity with stereotype reduction

- Training programs
- More mixed teams
- info sessions for HR personnel

26

Signalling Theory

Applicant seeking cues

27

Contrast Effects

Previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewers perception on a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of differences between applicants

28

Biases in subjective performance appraisals are due to

- primacy
- recency
- stereotypes

29

Subjective Rating Errors

Leniency
Harshness
Central Tendency
Halo Effect
Similar to me effect

30

Hofstede’s 6 dimensions of work related value differences

1. Power Distance
2. Uncertainty Avoidance
3. Masculinity/Femininity
4. Individualism/Collectivism
5. Long Term/Short Term orientation
6. Indulgence

31

What are attitudes?

Fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people.
- belief + value = attitude -> behaviour

32

Job Satisfaction

A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs, individual and/or overall

33

What Determines job satisfaction

Discrepancy
Fairness
Disposition
Mood & Emotion

34

Equity Theory

My outcomes/inputs = others outcomes/inputs

35

Feelings include: (2)

Emotions: intense, short lived, caused by specific event
Mood: less intense, longer lived

36

Affective events Theory

Organizational events -> emotions

37

Emotional Contagion

Tendency for moods and emotions to spread

38

Emotional regulation

Conforming to “display rules”

39

Consequences of job dissatisfaction

Increase absence from work
Increase turnover, turnover is expensive

40

Consequences of job Satisfaction

-Increased performance
-Increased organizational citizenship behaviour
- customer satisfaction & profit

41

3 types of Organizational Commitment

1. Affective (involvement
2. Continuance (costs)
3. Normative (obligation)

42

Key contributors to organizational commitment

- Satisfying work
- Role Clarity
- leaving org is a sacrifice
- increases with time
- strong identification

43

Intrinsic Motivation

- Motivation between the worker and the task, like sense of achievement

44

Extrinsic Motivation

Motivation that stems from the work environment, not the task. Ex Pay, fringe benefits

45

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

1. Physiological
2. Safety
3. Belongingness
4. Self-Esteem
5. Self-Actualization

46

Alderfer’s ERG Theory

- existence
- relatedness
- growth

47

McClelland’s theory of needs

1. Achievement
2. Affiliation
3. Power
Non-hierarchical

48

Self Determination Theory

How people are motivated
- Autonomously
- Controlled

49

Expectancy Theory

Motivation will occur for activities that are both attractive and accomplishable

50

Goal Setting Theory

Goals -> mechanisms -> performance

51

Piece Rate

Payed per unit ( tree planting)

52

Problems with wage incentives

- lowered quality
- differential opportunity
- reduce cooperation
- incompatible job design
- restriction of productivity

53

Merit Pay Plans

- link performance to white collar jobs
- lots are ineffective, small increases don’t do much

54

Profit Sharing

Return company profit to employees

55

How to motivate teams using pay (3)

- profit sharing
- employee stock ownership plans
- gainsharing

56

Gainsharing

Group pay plan based on productivity

57

Skill-Based Pay

Payed according to the amount of skills someone has
- can be expensive

58

Job Scope

Breadth: different activities
Depth: freedom regarding how job is done

Increased by job rotation, stretch assignments

59

Job Enrichment techniques

- Combining tasks
- Establishing infernal & external client relationships
- Reducing supervision
- forming teams

60

Problems when using job enrichment

-poor diagnosis
- lack of desire or skill
- Union resistance
- Supervisory resistance

61

Management by Objectives

Manager to worker, a systematic program designed to facilitate goal establishment & accomplishment

62

Alternative Working Schedules

- Flex-Time
- Compressed work week
- Job sharing
- Telecommuting