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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (62):
1

mechanical effect of massage

caused by physically moving the tissues by compression, tension, shearing, bending, or twisting

2

reflex effect of massage

change mediated by the nervous system

3

physiological effect of massage

change in biochemical processes

4

psychological effect of massage

occurs in mind, emotions or behavior

5

psychoneuroimmunological effect of massage

changes in hormone levels or immune function; relaxation represents complex multi system phenomena

6

energetic effect of massage

effects on patient's bio-magnetic field

7

example outcome of mechanical response

increased lymphatic return; mobilized bronchial secretions

8

example outcome of reflex response

sedation or arousal; facilitation of skeletal muscle contraction

9

example outcome of physiological response

improved modeling of connective tissue; reduced muscle spasms

10

example outcome of psychoneuroimmunological response

decreased anxiety, decreased cortisol, improved t-cell function

11

example outcome of energetic response

improved bio-magnetic field pattern; improved energy flow

12

how does massage improve adhesions/scarring? (2)

increased tissue mobility & decreased scarring

13

how does massage improve impaired connective tissue integrity, facial restrictions, and decreased skin mobility (3)

(1) separation and lengthening of fascia (2) promotion of connective tissue remodeling (3) increased connective tissue mobility

14

how does massage improve impaired joint integrity or inflammed/restricted joint capsules (3)

(1) reduced inflammation (2) decreased capsular restrictions (3) increased joint mobility & integrity

15

how does massage improve impaired joint mobility & active ROM (2)

increased mobility & AROM

16

how does massage improve muscle integrity, muscle extensibility, muscle tears, tendinopathies, trigger points (4)

(1) increased muscle extensibility (2) decreased inflammation of muscles & tendons (3) decreased trigger point activity (4) increased joint mobility

17

how does massage improve impaired muscle performance (strength, power, endurance) (2)

(1) secondary to enhancement of reduced pain, increased muscle extensibility, reduction of muscle spasms & trigger point activity, etc. (2) balance of agonist/antagonist muscle function

18

how does massage improve abnormal resting muscle tension & spasms (3)

decreased muscle spasms, normalized muscle tension, increased joint mobility

19

how does massage improve postural malalignment (2)

normalized postural alignment and increased postural awareness

20

how does massage improve impaired sensation (1)

reduction of nerve root compression as a result of facial restrictions & trigger points

21

how does massage improve stress (3)

sedation, increased perceived relaxation, decreased cortisol & catecholamines

22

how does massage improve pain (3)

(1) pain reduction through primary treatment of dysfunction (2) counter irritant analgesia (3)

23

how does massage improve an impaired airway (3)

(1) increased respiration (2) increased clearance / mobilization of secretions (3) decreased dyspnea

24

how does massage improve dyspnea (2)

(1) increased airway clearance (2) increased perceived relaxation

25

how does massage improve swelling (6)

(1) increased lymphatic return (2) increased venous return (3) decreased joint effusion (4) decreased edema (5) increased joint integrity (6) increased joint mobility

26

how does massage improve abnormal neuromuscular tone (3)

(1) normalized neuromuscular tone (2) alteration of proprioceptive stimulation (3) balance of agonist/antagonist function

27

what does a client need from a theraputic relationship? (6)

(1) safety (2) predictability (3) patience (4) explicit interpersonal process (5) health boundaries (6) responsible closure

28

open questions

stimulate further discussion; no wrong answer

29

prompting

demonstrates interest and encourages speaker to continue

30

clarification

restate what is heard and ask if information is correct or another interpretation

31

closed questions

black and white answers; used to get to the truth of the circumstance

32

purpose of using 'I' 'we' and 'you'

I' is used to describe feeling or perceptions; 'You' is used to describe specific behaviors; 'We' encourages inclusion & helps summarize agreement

33

compare medical massage/wellness massage: timing of intervention

medical: after clinical condition occurs
wellness: anytime

34

compare medical massage/wellness massage: focus of intervention

medical: signs and symptoms of condition; impairments grade 1-4
wellness: impairments grade 0

35

compare medical massage/wellness massage: client examination

medical: examine body function & structure; identify impairments based on condition
wellness: examine body function & structure relevant to individual goals for wellness

36

compare medical massage/wellness massage: goal of intervention

medical: identify and manage impairments of condition
wellness: optimize well being across physical, mental, spiritual, social domains

37

compare medical massage/wellness massage: clinical reasoning process

no difference: complete clinical reasoning process

38

compare medical massage/wellness massage: outcomes

medical: outcomes related to impairments in body structure and functions
wellness: outcomes related to body structures and functions

39

hyperarousal

abnormally heightened state of arousal

40

dissociation

impaired perception of reality often accompanied by a numbing of emotions or a disconnecting from the present

41

therapists use percussion to improve (5)

(1) airway clearance (2) proprioceptive stimulation (3) increased arousal (4) pain relief (5) facilitate/inhibit neuromuscluar tone

42

components of percussion: contact

fingers, fingertips, ulnar border of hands, palms, heels, dorsal surface of IP joint

43

components of percussion: pressure

light to heavy

44

components of percussion: direction

perpendicular to client's body (except for pounding)

45

components of percussion: rate

2 to 10+ cycles per second using both hands

46

components of percussion: duration

30 seconds to 20 minutes (multiple areas)

47

components of percussion: integrates with

various forms of percussion integrate with each other; not with other massage techniques

48

components of percussion: context

(1) stimulating effect: end of full body massage
(2) facilitate performance: immediately prior to exercise
(3) alternated with vibration

49

pincement

Use the tips of your thumb, index, and middle fingers to pinch and lift the client's tissue

50

tapping

Keep writs and forearms still and gently strike tissues with the individual fingertips using the same motion as keyboarding

51

hacking

Think karate chop

52

slapping

with hands and fingers held loosely, make contact with entire open palmar surface

53

clapping

Position your hand and form a cupping shape with palm

54

beating

position hand in a loose fist and use heal of your hand to percuss large muscles and even the sacrum

55

pounding

position hand in loose fist and use surface of the fifth finger as the contact surface

56

hand position for all form of percussion

hands and wrists relaxed

57

contact for all forms of percussion

quick strokes

58

light force over what structures

face, unprotected bones

59

moderate force over what structures

thinner muscles

60

heavier force over what structures

large muscles

61

how should force be adjusted?

size, age, and health of patient

62

percussion techniques should be applied how?

circular motion; not in one place