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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (61):
1

3 C's of criminal justice

Courts
Cops
Corrections

2

When did Criminology emerge

19th century
20th century in Canada

3

CSI Effect

notion that jury members now expect to see high level of forensic evidence in order to arrive at a finding of guilt

4

which decades saw an increase in crime rates

60's,70's,80's

5

5 frameworks of crime

Classical
Positivism
Normative

6

5 frameworks of crime

Classical
Positivism
Normative
Legal
Critical

7

What has not been among the successes of the victims rights unit

An influx of support and counselling resources for victims

8

T/F the earliest written legal codes appeared on rock columns in Mesopotamia circa 2000 B.C

True

9

T/F The definition of “media” that is employed in Chapter 2 of the textbook includes newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and movies, but does not include video games, music videos, and social media.

False

10

According to the 2009 General Social Survey, the top reason why victimization is not reported to the police is?

It is considered not to be important enough

11

Stare decisis

the rule of precedent "to stand by things decided"
Court follows law established in previous courts

12

Criminal Law vs Civil Law

Criminal:
-prosecuted by state
-proof beyond a reasonable doubt
-criminal penalties
Civil:
-Party who feels wronged brings civil suit
-Does not involve imprisonment

13

Indictable offence vs Summary offence

Indictable(felony):
-serious(murder,robbery)
-preliminary hearing
-lengthy imprisonment
Summary(misdemeanor):
-not as serious(theft of less than $5000)

14

Actus reus

Guilty act

15

Mens rea

Intent to commit crime

16

4 schools of thought measuring crime

Structuralist
Positivist
Constructionist
Integrationalist

17

Structuralist on measuring crime

-conflict theory
-question relevance of crime statistics
-why do we describe killings by individuals as murder but death caused by businesses as civil matter

18

Positivist on measuring crime

-criminal code as societal consensus about criminal behaviour
-crime statistics as objective,reliable

19

constructionist on measuring crime

-social process
-police create and choose crime statistics

20

Integrationalist on measuring crime

-Combination of all schools of thought

21

When was the Uniform crime report implemented

1962

22

When was the second uniform crime report implemented

1982

23

Crime severity index

More serious crimes carry higher weight
Counts all offences
Based on length of sentence

24

What trend is seen in crime rates over the years by CSI

slight increase in 2015/16, significantly lower than 1998

25

Principles of Sir Robert Peel

-Crime prevention
-Public must approve of/respect police
-Public must see obeying laws as in their best interest
-Use of physical force must be little
-Commitment to everyone in society regardless of where they're from
-job of police not to act as judge
-police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder

26

What year did the RNWMP and dominion police join to become RCMP

1920

27

7 core characteristics of cop culture- robert reiner

1. Mission-action-cynicism-pessimism
2.Suspicion
3.Isolation/solidarity(difficulty having relationships)
4.Police conservativism
5.Machismo(thrill of the chase,sexism,alcoholism)
6.Racial prejudice
7. Pragmatism(least amount of fuss/paperwork)

28

What is punishment 8 principles

1.Unpleasant for person being punished
2.Must be for an offence
3.Must be the work of personal agencies
4.Must be imposed by an authority conferred by institution
5.Must be of an offender
6.Pain must be intentional not accidental
7.Punished as response to offence
8.Imposed bu judicial

29

T/F According to Lombroso all criminals are atavistic

True

30

T/F capital punishment formally ended in canada in 1962

False it was 1976

31

3 limits of general deterrence strategies

-proper level of punishment
-is level of severity applicable to all future offenders
-non-ration actors/emotion based crime
-will potential offenders know actual severity of punishment

32

Problem frame

-A narrative that is easily understood
-Focuses on something extraordinarily bad that affects many people
-Calls out for a solution to the problem, to be provided by the police, the government, etc.

33

Criminal Defences

-Ignorance
-Not criminally responsible
-Intoxication
-duress
-Necessity
-Self defence
-Entrapment

34

Duress

-Threatened with physical harm,
-has to be immediate
-does not excuse murder

35

Necessity

Avoid harm caused by natural forces

36

Entrapment

Pushed by law enforcement

37

Classical framework of crime

-Beccaria
-Crime as rational activity
-emphasis on fairness and rule of law

38

Positivist framework of crime

-Lombroso
-Scientific method
-product of defective minds and bodies
-scientific racism

39

Normative framework of crime

-Durkheim
-crime as normal,necessary,functional
-crimes identify behaviors that are acceptable/unacceptable
-catalyst of social change/indicator of social health

40

Cesare Beccaria

-Viewed criminal as rational
-laws are to ensure security
-punishment should be public,speedy and necessary

41

Marx vs Durkheim

-Durkeim viewed crime as an indicator of social health, marx viewed crime as symptom of social inequality
-durkeim thought crimes identified behaviors that were (un)acceptable while marx thought laws were to protect the wealthy

42

legal framework of crime

-law defines crime, issue is how to identify and classify it
-acts prohibited,prosecuted and punished by criminal law

43

critical framework of crime

crime is about social injury and harm regardless of the criminal code

44

lex talionis

an eye for an eye

45

Purpose of nwmp

Secure and police western territories

45

How much crime is reported to police

1/3

45

Penal welfare

Rehabilitation

46

Theories of punishment

Consequentialist-prevent future crime (deterrence,rehabilitation,incapacitation)

Retributive-punishing crimes already committed

47

Emile Durkheim penology theory

Social solidarity for law abiding citizens

Innovation, social change

48

Marx penology theory

Historical analysis of prisons/punishment correspond with availability of labour

Prisons exploitable source of labour

49

Michael Foucault penology theory

Challenge Marx

Power is everywhere

Prison about new technological powers

50

Elias penology theory

Violence is brought under control through a gradual process

51

What year was the jury independence:bushel case

1670

52

Purpose of criminal law

Deterrence
Denunciation
Retribution

53

Criminology is

Study of crime
Multidisciplinary
Offers advice on crime policies
Challenges common sense thinking

54

Moral panic

Concern
Hostility towards targeted group
Consensus that threat is real and serious
Disproportionately
Sudden appearance and disappearance of threat (volatility)

55

Why victims do t report crimes

1. Feel they aren’t important enough
2. Think there is nothing police can do to help
3. Deal with it in another manner

56

Gss 3 categories of crime

Violent victimization
Theft of personal property
Household victimization

57

Britain/America influence on Canadian policing

British-administrative control
America-forceful, technology driven

58

Situational crime prevention, target hardening, and crime prevention through product design have their roots in rational choice theory T/F

True

59

Gresham Sykes and David Matza’s theory around “techniques of neutralization” attempts to provide a comprehensive account for the means by which criminal justice agencies can ‘neutralize’ deviant behaviours.

False