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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (50):

What is the definition of *violence*?

The threat, attempt, or use of physical force


When does violence become *criminal violence*?

When it is against the law; certain acts of violence cannot be tolerated in an ordered society, so representatives of a government create rules prohibiting some forms of violent behavior outright and circumscribing their expression in other instances.


How was the law of homicide developed (basis, etc.)?

It was developed out of English common law, brought by the Pilgrims that landed at Plymouth Rock.


Name the three perspectives of viewing criminal violence.

criminology; criminal justice; public health


Describe how each perspective of viewing violence looks at criminal violence.

Criminology looks at the making and breaking of laws related to criminal violence, as well as society's reaction to criminal violence.

The criminal justice perspective focuses on the law enforcement, criminal courts, and corrections surrounding criminal violence. It looks at the problem of violence as interpersonal attacks.

The public health perspective views violence as emerging from a complex causal system that includes, but is not limited to, offender intentions, motivations, and characteristics. It looks violence as intentional injury.


The criminal justice system looks to prevent violent crime through three different activities. Name two.

deterrence; incapacitation; rehabilitation


There are three types of prevention activities under the public health approach to viewing criminal violence. Name one and describe how it is accomplished.

primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention

Primary prevention attempts to prevent the occurrence of criminal violence by targeting and altering one or more criminal risk factors.


There are several challenges to researching violence. Name one.

*The rarity of the event*: the more serious the crime, the less frequently it occurs and the less likely it can be observed directly.


There are three official sources of criminal statistics and information about crime in the US. Name two.

Uniform Crime Report (UCR); National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS); National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)


There are four different UCR Part 1 violent crimes. Name two.

murder and nonnegligent manslaughter; forcible rape; robbery; aggravated assault


What is the hierarchy rule?

In an incident in which several crimes are committed, only the most serious crime is counted; the remaining offenses are ignored


What does a *crime rate* measure?

Crime rates measure the amount of a crime's occurrence in relation to the population at risk for that crime.


What is the formula for a *crime rate*?

Crime Rate = (Amount / Population at Risk) * 100,000


What is a *clearance* under the UCR?

The number of offenses for which an arrest was made


There are several differences between the UCR and NIBRS. Name two.

1) The *UCR records one offense per incident* as determined by the hierarchy rule, whereas the NIBRS records each offense occurring in an incident 2) The *UCR does not distinguish between attempted and completed crimes*, but the NIBRS does


What is the NCVS and what does it collect?

The NCVS is a major source of information about violent crime that relies on interviews with victims. It collects information on the number of completed or attempted victimizations as well as information about the incidents themselves.


There are strengths and weaknesses of the NCVS. Name two (of either or each).

Strength: measures both reported and unreported crime

Weakness: does not collect information on homicide, commercial crimes, or arson


How violence has been used in US history in a way that has impacted positive accomplishments? Name two examples.

1) Mob protest and violence against British rule that led to the American Revolution and independence from Britain

2) Civil War violence that led to the freedom of slaves


What was the major source of conflict between whites and Native Americans?

The whites' desire for the Native Americans' tribal land


Why did lynching as an instrument of social policy decline in the 1930s?

White fears had been put to rest by US Supreme Court decisions that all but excluded African Americans from the political process by poll taxes and literacy requirements. Nothing more was needed to hold them down, so the practice of lynching declined because it was no longer needed.


What amendment to the constitution prohibited alcohol?

18th amendment


How did the outlawing of alcohol lead to an increase in violence?

Outlawing alcohol led to an increase in organized crime, which relied on violence to maintain discipline within its ranks and eliminate competition.


What is the definition of murder and nonnegligent manslaughter?

The willful (nonnegligent) killing of one human being by another


What is the definition of aggravated assault?

Attack or attempted attack with a weapon (regardless of whether or not an injury occurred), and attack without a weapon when serious injury results.


In 2012, what percent of murders involved the use of a firearm?



In 2012, 25% of murders involved what circumstance?

arguments / disputes


In 2012, what percentage of murders resulted in an arrest?



When it comes to the dynamic between strangers or acquaintances, which kind of murder has the higher probability of being cleared with an arrest?

Acquaintances; it is generally believed that homicides involving strangers are less frequently cleared because they involve felonies or drugs.


Arrest clearances are important to police departments, policymakers, and the public. Name two reasons why.

1) If offenders are not arrested, they are free to offend again, which increases the risk of victimization.

2) Clearances are a performance measure, so failure to arrest undermines the morale of law enforcement personnel and agencies.


What is the difference between a mass murder and a serial murder?

Mass murder is the murder of 4+ victims in a single episode, whereas serial murder is the murder of 2+ victims by the same offender(s) in separate events.


Serial homicides account for what percentage of all homicides?

Fewer than 1%


What type of squad investigates homicides after they've been opened after long periods of time?

cold case squad


What is the definition of a *robbery*?

Robbery is the theft or attempted theft, in a direct confrontation with the victim, by force or threat of force.


Who commits most robberies?

Young males; 55% of offenders are black


What is the most common motivation that offenders give for using a weapon in a robbery?

To intimidate the victim


How does the strain theory explain the crime of robbery?

The disenfranchisement felt by poor (often black) teenagers reduces hope and investment in the future and instead encourages short-term, impulsive (sometimes violent) behavior.


How does the differential association theory explain robbery?

Criminal behavior (such as robbery) is learned in interaction with other persons through a process of communication, primarily within intimate personal groups.


According to the routine activities theory, crimes like robberies occur when three things come together. What are two of them?

motivated offenders; suitable targets; absence of capable guardians


Based on the routine activities theory, how do you reduce robberies?

By reducing opportunities to commit robbery (encouraging targets to protect themselves, increasing surveillance by citizens/ businesses in areas at high risk, etc.)


What is the NCVS definition for *rape*?

Forced sexual intercourse (vaginal, anal, or oral penetration by the offender) including both psychological coercion and physical force


What is the newly-revised definition of *rape* under the UCR?

Penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.


According to the NCVS, what percentage of rapes is committed by strangers?



There are many reasons why victims DON'T report sexual assault to police. Name two.

personal or private matter; reported to another official; offender was unsuccessful; fear of reprisal


When victims DO report rapes to the police, what is the most common reason they give for reporting it?

prevent further crimes by the offender against themselves or others


There are many factors that motivate people to commit rape. Name two (OTHER than that it is a sex crime).

sexual trauma as a child; insecurity about masculine identity; alcohol and drug use


There are many myths about rape. Name two.

no means yes; women are swept off their feet by sexually forceful men; it is impossible to rape an unwilling woman


What is a *rape shield law*?

constrains the use of prior sexual history by defense attorneys attempting to establish victim consent


Compared to women who are raped, women who avoid rape most likely did what?

Flee or try to flee; yell or scream; use physical force; take advantage of environmental opportunity


What challenges are there in preventing sexual violence?

Addressing what young women/men want and need to know about negotiating sex, dealing with conflicting expectations in relationships, and exploring alternative ways to "express gender."


How should we go about treating men (other than as perpetrators)?

Engage men as allies in the prevention of sexual violence