Midterm Flashcards Preview

Psycology > Midterm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm Deck (69):
1

Learning

A relatively permanent behaviour, knowledge, capability, or attitude

2

Classical conditioning

A type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another

Classical conditioning was discovered by Pavlov 1849-1936

3

Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov

Charge of Psychological lab at the Institute of experimental medicine

Research in physiology of blood circulation and digestion

4

Neutral stimulus (tone)

Is presented shortly before an unconditioned stimulus (food)

5

Salivation

Naturally elicits an unconditioned response

6

Unconditioned stimulus US

Elicits unconditioned response without learning

(Food, loud noise, light in eye)

7

Unconditioned response UR

Response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without learning

(Salivation ,eyeblink ,startle,contraction)

8

Conditioned stimulus CS

Neutral stimulus

After repeated pairing with US, the stimulus becomes associated with it

Ex. tone

9

Conditioned Response CR

Learned response

Elicited by CS in response to a tone

10

Higher-Order Conditioning

Conditioned stimuli are linked to form a series of signals

11

Generalization

Tendency to make a CR to a stimulus that is similar to the original CS

12

Discrimination

Learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli

CR occurs only in the response to the original CS not to similar stimuli

13

Excitation

Acquisition and generalizations of reflexes

14

Inhibition

Extinction CR and stimulus discrimination (no generalization)

15

Extinction

Weakening and disappearance of CR as a result of repeated presentation of CS without US

16

Spontaneous Recovery

Reappearance of extinguished CR when organism is exposed to CS following rest period

17

Unconditioned stimulus USC

Elicits an unconditioned response without previous conditioning the meat powder

18

Unconditioned response UCR

An unlearned reaction to a UCS that occurs without previous conditioning

19

Conditioned stimulus CS

Previously neural stimulus that can now elicit a conditioned response

20

Conditioned response CR

Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus; salivating to the tone

21

Generalization

Tendency to make a CR to a stimulus that is similar to the original CS

22

Discrimination

Learned ability to distinguish between similar stimuli

CR occurs only in response to the original CS, not to similar stimuli

23

Excitation

Acquisition and generalization of reflexes
UCS->UCR
CS->CR

24

Inhibition

Extinction CR and stimulus discrimination (no generalization)

25

John Watson and Rayner

Conditioned fears persist and modify personality throughout life

Mary Cover Jones later used classical conditioning to remove fears in another child

Watson and Rayner “little Albert” study
Child with fear of rat

26

Process in classical conditioning

Extinction

Spontaneous recovery

Stimulus generalization
-little Albert

Discrimination

Higher-order conditioning
-when a CS functions like a UCS

27

Law of Effect

Edward Thorndike

Consequences response determines the tendency to respond in the same way in the future

Law of effect formed the basis for BF Skinner

28

Shaping

Learning in small steps rather than all at once

Rewarding successive approximations of desires response

29

Extinction

Weakening and eventual disappearance of a response as a result of withholding reinforcement

30

Classical conditioning

Reflective involuntary response

31

Operate conditioning

Voluntary responses

32

Positive reinforcement

A pleasant or desirable consequence after response

Increases the probability that the response will be repeated

33

Negative reinforcement

Termination of an unpleasant condition after a response

Increases the probability that the response will be repeated

34

Primary reinforcer

A reinforcer that fulfills a basic. Physical need and does not depend on learning

35

Secondary reinforcer

A reinforcer that is acquired or learned through association with other reinforcers

36

Fixed-ratio

The reinforcer is givin after a fixed number of correct, non reinforced responses

37

Variable ratio

The reinforcer is given after a varying number of non reinforced responses

38

Fixed interval

the reinforcer is given in response to the first correct response after a specific period of time has elapsed

39

Variable interval

The reinforcer is given after first correct response following a varying period of time

40

Schedules of reinforcement

Ratio schedules yield higher response rates than interval schedules

Fixed ratio schedule; has the highest response rate

Variable schedule; the most resistant to extinction

41

Punishment

Removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus

Lowers the probability of response

42

Positive punishment

Decrease in behavior that results from an added consequence

Consequence is usually negative

43

Negative punishment

Decrease in behavior that results from a removed consequence

Loss of something desirable

44

Reconstruction

An account of an event that has been pieced together from a few highlights

45

Sir Frederick Bartlett

Reconstructive memory processes employ schemas

Schema-based processing is even more evident when processing more complex information

Using schemas to reconstruct memories can lead to inaccuracies

46

Source memory

A recollection of circumstances in which a memory was formed

Most memories do not included sources

47

Flashbulb memories

Memories for shocking emotion provoking events

Include information about the source from which the information was acquired

Reconstructive in nature

48

Expertise

Possessing extensive background knowledge that is relevant to a reconstructive memory task

49

Culture

May influence ability to remember certain kinds of material

Elders of the Iatmul people of New Guinea exhibit impressive memory for the oral history of their people

The Asur people of India have exceptional memory for locations

50

Ebbinghaus and the curve of forgetting

Learn and relearn more than 1,200 lists of nonsense syllables to discover how rapidly forgetting occurs

51

Curve of forgetting

Forgetting tapers off after a period of rapid information loss immediately following learning

Meaningful material is forgotten more slowly encoded more deeply

52

Encoding failure

Occurs when information was never put into long-term memory

53

Decay theory

Memories, if not used, fade with time and eventually disappear

Decay does not appear in long-term memories

54

Consolidation failure

Disruption in the consolidation prevents long-term memory from forming

55

Motivated forgetting

Suppression or repression in an effort to protect oneself from material that is painful, frightening, or otherwise unpleasant

56

Retrieval failure

Not remembering something one is certain of knowing

Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon
• knowing information has been learned but not unable to retrieve it

57

Hippocampus

Plays an important role in forming episodic memories

Formation of semantic memories involves the hippocampus and parts of the hippocampus region

The hippocampus is also involved in navigational skills

58

Anterograde

Lose memories of events after onset

59

Retrograde

Lose memories of events prior to onset

60

Long term potentiation

An increase in the efficiency of neural transmission at the at the synapse that lasts for hours or longer

Does not place unless both sending and receiving neurons are activated at the same time

61

Hormones and Memory

Our strongest and most lasting memories are usually fueled by emotions

Excessive levels of cortisol can interfere with memory

62

Amnesia

Partial or complete loss of memory

Due to loss of consciousness, brain damage, or psychological case

63

Anterograde amnesia

Inability to perform new long-term memories

Case of HM

64

Retrograde amnesia

Loss of memory for experience that occurred shortly before a loss of consciousness

65

Dementia

Mental deterioration characterized by impaired memory and intellect

Altered personality and behavior

Individuals with dementia can lose episodic and semantic memories

66

Alzheimer’s disease

A form of dementia that cause the generation of brain cells

How IQ plus lifelong intellectual activity may delay or lesson Alzheimer symptoms

67

Human memory is reconstructive

Eyewitness testimony is highly subject to error

Should always be viewed with caution

68

Misinformation effect

Erroneous recollections of witnessed events

Results from information learned after the fact

69

Repression

Process by which traumatic memories are buried in the in unconscious

Hypnosis and guided imagery are often used to help clients recover repressed memories of childhood sexual abuse

Critics argue therapists sometimes implant false memories in clients