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Flashcards in Midterm Deck (9)
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1

Oligarchy

Definition: A ruling class that consists of a few land-owning individuals.

Key Ideas:
- "Oligarchy arises out of timocracy and it emphasizes wealth rather than honor, wisdom or justice..."
- City of the rich and city of the poor. (No middle class)
- Cardinal fault is the desire for wealth; Greed is almost always inevitable
- Wealth as a social motive is to be mistrusted
- "A ruling class which is devoted to its wealth and which owes its position and power to wealth will substitute exploitation for government."

2

Formal Powers of the President

1.) Chief of State (ceremonial role)
2.) Chief Executive - In charge of 17 cabinet members + 60 major agencies, boards, and commissions
3.) Commander in chief - Ultimate authority of military forces
4.) Chief Diplomat - Making foreign policy and appointing ambassadors
5.) Chief Legislator - Signs bills into laws and has the power to veto
6.) Chief of his party*
7.) Crisis manager*

3

Plato's Justice

"Giving to every man his due…for what is due to him is that he be treated for what he is, in light of his training and capacity; while what is due from him is the honest performance of those tasks which the place accorded him requires."
- Justice is giving to every man his due
-Justice is a 2-way street

4

Impeachment

- Actual impeachment resembles a criminal indictment in which the House acts as a Grand Jury

Process:
1.) House Judiciary Committee conducts an investigation then recommends its vote to impeach to the full House
2.) Hose can vote to impeach with a simple majority (50% + 1 or 218 votes)
3.) Senate conducts a trial to determine criminal guilt
4.) Chief Justice of S.C. presides over trial
5.) 2/3 vote in Senate is required to convict and remove from office

5

Impeachment Example: Bill Clinton

Bill Clinton (1993-2001)
a.) Obstruction of justice: tampering with witnesses
b.) Committed perjury under oath: "I did not have sexual relations with that woman"
c.) He was impeached in the House but not convicted.
d.) Conclusion: An impeachable offense is anything congress says it is

6

7 Articles of the Constitution

Article 1 - Legislative Branch: bicameral (two houses), one with equal representation and the other with representation proportionate to population size

Article 2 - Executive Branch: President of the U.S. acts a check against powers of legislative branch

Article 3 - Judicial Branch: 9 justices nominated by the president and voted in by the president; serve lifetime appointments

Article 4 -The States: The federal government is responsible for providing protection to all states. All states are equal to each other.

Article 5 - Future generations can amend the Constitution. Both the federal and state governments can start the amendment process.

Article 6 - Constitution is the supreme law of the land. All states must swear an oath to abide by it. No religious test can be required.

Article 7 - Ratification: 9/13 states necessary to ratify

7

Articles of Confederation

- First written constitution
- Adopted in 1777 by Continental Congress
- Replaced by Constitution in 1789
- Denied Congress the power to collect taxes and regulate commerce

8

Shays' Rebellion

- Daniel Shays was a farmer who fought in the Revolutionary War
- He demanded debt relief b/c war bonds from federal government were worthless
- He led a rebellion of angry farmers
- He pointed out the weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation b/c Congress could not regulate commerce or stop the states from issuing taxes

9

Social Contract

- Thomas Hobbes said without government "life is nasty, cruel, brutish, and short" (Anarchy)
- John Locke said people give up a certain degree of liberty in exchange for the government's protection against foreign and domestic threats