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what are the 3 tasks that gait makes up? what part of the gait cycle is in each task?

(1) weight acceptance: IC, LR
(2) single limb support: MSt, TSt
(3) swing limb advancement: PSw, ISw, MSw, TSw


does double limb support increase or decrease with increased gait speed?



what is one reason people with balance issues walk slower?

more double limb support (compared to increased walking speeds)


what are the two body subdivision of gait?

(1) passenger unit: HAT + pelvis
(2) locomotion unit: two lower limbs + pelvis


what are the 4 rockers of the lower extremity? what are their functions?

(1) heel rocker
(2) ankle rocker
(3) forefoot rocker
(4) toe rocker
their function is to act as a pivot system for smooth forward progression


what is the difference between temporary and definitive orthoses?

(1) temporary: off the shelf
(2) definitive: custom fit


what is the difference between fixed and dynamic deformities?

(1) fixed deformities: can not be passively corrected
(2) dynamic deformities: result from over-activity of muscle tendon groups but when at rest are passively correctable; can also develop in adjacent joints in response to coupling effects of deformities above or below


what type of lever are orthoses?

class one lever


in a 3 point pressure system, where are the application of forces?

(1) primary force is correcting the deformity
(2) two other counter forces on the opposite side to balance out the sum of forces
(ex: knee valgus: primary force is on the medial side; two counter forces on the lateral side)


why use an unloader brace if it leads to increased GRFs at the knee?

an unloader brace increases gait speed, causing increased propulsion, leading to increased GRFs; this increased GRF is expected and a good thing as the person is walking faster


how much clearance should be in a shoe at the toe box?

there should be 1/2 inch clearance from the longest toe to the end of the shoe


what does a neutral shoe provide?

cushioning/shock absorption, not designed for control


what does a stability shoe provide?

medial control of the subtalar joint (controls pronation)


what does a motion control shoe provide?

(1) medial and lateral control of the subtalar joint (controls pronation and supination)
(2) midtarsal joint protection (controls excessive motion)


what is the purpose of static AFOs?

restrict motion while holding limbs in a static posture


what is the purpose of dynamic AFOs?

allow certain motions, while disallowing other motions


where does the trimline fall with a solid AFO? what is the purpose of this AFO?

(1) anterior to the malleoli
(2) immobilization in all 3 planes; all 3 functional rockers will be restricted during gait


what does positioning a solid AFO in slight plantar flexion promote?

knee extension (inclines the tibia posteriorly)


what does positioning a solid AFO in slight dorsiflexion promote?

knee flexion (inclines the tibial anteriorly


what is the purpose of a hinged AFO?

permits full sagittal plane ankle motion while controlling frontal and transverse plane motion


where is the trimline located on a posterior leaf spring AFO? what is the function of this AFO?

(1) posterior to the malleoli
(2) indicated for dorsiflexor weakness; less control of frontal plane motion compared to a solid AFO


what is the most common indication for functional electrical stem, such as bioness?

foot drop by an UMN lesion


when is a Klenzak joint indicated?

motion control assistance can be achieved with steel dorsiflexion spring assist


when is a carbon composite AFO indicated?

for dorsiflexion assistance in the presence of mild-moderate foot drop; also provides a little plantarflexion assistance


when are KAFOs indicated?

KAFOs are typically used as a last resort; used when excessive movement at the knee can't be controlled with an AFO


what advantage do metal upright AFOs have?

the metal design on the sides allow for increased limb volume (such as edema)


when is a floor reaction AFO (stance control) with an anterior band indicated?

(1) used for weak soleus; prevents excessive knee flexion during stance
(2) allows for increased stability during stance, but allows for knee flexion during swing