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Flashcards in Midterm Exam Deck (87)
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What does SOLER stand for?

sit up straight, open posture, lean in slightly, eye contact, relax


name some examples of nonverbal communication

bodily behavior, tone of voice, facial expressions, space, general appearance, eye behavior


name two ways know questions should be used in therapy

they are valuable to client, they will help therapiest learn additional information about the client


what are the two types of questions

indirect and direct (which can be open or closed)


direct, closed ended questions begin with

do, does, is, have, was, are, who, where, when


direct, open ended questions begin with

how, why, and what


what are the benefits of direct closed ended questions

solicit specific information and keep excessively talkative clients focused


what are the problems with direct closed ended questions

restricts verbal output and can communicate what a client should think/feel


what are the benefits of direct, open ended questions

elaborated responses, opens up conversation, allows you to gather more information in client's words, minimize suggestions from the therapist


when do you use "why" questions

you have good therapeutic alliance and you want them to explore a certain path


why should be weary of why questions

often elicit defensive responses or "because" answers


indirect question phrases

I wonder, I'm curious, tell me, saymore about


when do you use indirect questions

when you are curious but do not to pressure a response


what are the benefits of indirect questions

encourages exploration of thoughts and feelings


name the five general guidelines for asking questions

prepare your clients for questions, don't use questions as your predominant approach, do use open and indirect questions over closed questions, make questions relevant, and approach sensitive areas cautiously.


name the five types of directive listening responses

feeling validation, interpretive reflection of feeling, interpretation, confrontation, immediacy


directive listening can be focused on _____ or _____

client or therapist


what is feeling validation

statements that supports, affirms, approves of, or validates feeling articulated by client


what are the effects of feeling validation

helps client accept feelings, temporarily reduces anxiety, enhances self-esteem, increase client exploration of feelings, may facilitate client dependency


what is the underlying message of feeling validation

your feelings are acceptable and you have permission to feel them.


what is interpretive reflection of feeling

statement including what the therapist believes may be underlying the client's thoughts or actions


what does interpretive reflection target

buried, hidden, or deeper emotions


what are the primary effects of interpretive reflection of feeling

encourage emotional expressions and client resistance/denial


what must be present before using interpretive reflection of feeling?

good rapport, demonstrated client is accurately heard, evidence that supports your interpretation


what is good phrase to start out interpretive reflection of feeling

correct me if I am wrong, i suspect, tell me if i'm wrong,


what is an interpretation

statement indicating what the therapist believes to be underlying the client's thoughts or actions


what is psychoanalytic interpretation

a statement linking past relationship patterns and experiences to current relationship patterns and behaviors


what are the main effects of psycholanalystic interpretation

encourage reflection and self-observation of client's emotions, thoughts, and actions, promotes client insight, can be met with client resistance or denial


when is psychoanalytic interpretation most effective

when the therapist has knowledge of the client's past and present relationships


what is a cognitive reframe

intervention that helps client view their problems differently


when do you use cognitive reframe

when therapist believes that the client is viewing some aspect of their world inaccurately


what are the effects of cognitive reframe

promote flexibility in client's percieved or interpreted actions, can reduce anxiety, anger, or sadness, and may be met with resistance or denial


when is cognitive reframe most effective

when there is a strong therapeutic alliance, you can offer good rationale, and make statements tentatively and collaboratively


what is confrontation

a statement that points out or identifies a client's incongruity or discrepancy


primary effects of confrontation

facilitates more accurate perception of reality, encourage clients to examine their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, can be met with reistance


what is immediacy

statement that integrates a here-and-now therapist disclosure


what are the purposes of immediacy

expressing support, confrontation, leading the client towards a specific action


what are the effects of immediacy

here-and-now therapeutic relationship, focus on how client affecting therapist or being percieved by the therapist,


what is an example of expressing support immediacy

As I listen to you talk about such a terrible experience, I feel admiration for the strength I hear in your voice


what is an example of confrontation immediacy

It feels almost like you're a helpless child instead of the competent and resourceful adult I've come to know


what is an example of leading towards action immediacy

when then makes me want to get out and explore other employment options, but I don't hear you doing that


what are the guidelines for providing feedback

be clear and concise, no overload, don't use jargon/technical terms, check-in with client, avoid providing information during high emotion, tailor your approach to your client, and present info in context.


What is psychoeducation

a statement that provides factual information about counseling process, client's problem, or treatment strategy


guidelines for giving advice

consider if you have alternative motives/bias, wait for the appropriate time, avoid giving moralistic advice, avoid giving advice your client has already received


what is the primary effect of giving advice

provide client with new ideas


why are we cautious with giving advice

may damage the therapeutic relationship


what is microagression

subtle or commonplace verbal expressions, behaviors, or environmental elements that communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights or insults


what are the three types of microagressions

microassult, microinsult, microinvalidation


what is microassult

explicit racial attack meant to hurt the individual through name-calling, avoidant behavior, or purposeful discriminatory action


what is microinsult

communications that convey rudeness and insensitivity or demean a person's racial heritage or identity


what is microinvalidation

communications that exlude, negative, or nullify the psychological thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a person of color


what is white privilege

a set of institutional advantages granted to those of who, by race, resemble the people who dominate the powerful position in our institutions.


guidelines for counseling diverse clients

learn as much as you can about client's race/ethnicity/culture, suspend preconceptions, recognize that client may be different from other members of the group, consider how culture differences between therapist and client might affect psychotherapy, acknowledge that power, privilege, and racism might affect interactions with client, when in doubt, err on the side of discussion


what are the three steps of listening

receiving message, processing message, sending a message back


what does listening do for the counselor

gather important information about clients, develop the therapeutic alliance with client


what does listening do for the client

feel they are presentat and want to know about them, allows them to tell their stories


what are the four types of inadequate listening

nonlistening, partial listening, rehearsing, tape-recorder listening


what is empathic listening

listening while also attending and observing;


what are the types of verbal messages that clients express

experiences, behaviors, cognitions, affects (emotions)


how are nonverbal communications help to accentuate or modify verbal messages

confirming, denying or confusing, strengthening or emphasizing, controlling or regulating


pay attention to what the client leaves out

content, behaviors, thoughts, and feelings


what is nondirective listening responses

responses that do not direct or lead client


what is directive listening responses

responses that introduce the therapist perspective


what are the primary effects of silence

places focus on the client to talk, allows for cooling off time, allows therapist to consider their next response


what are the guidelines for using silence

let a few seconds pass, don't get into a rut of breaking silence, do not use it if client is in crisis or confused, use nonverbal attending behavior


what is reflection or paraphrasing

rephrasing the content of what the client said


what are the effects of reflection/paraphasing

assures client is heard accurately, allows the client to hear what they said


what are the guidelines for reflection/paraphgrases

keep message same but use your own words, don't include opinions, reactions, or commentary


what is clarification

restating what the client has said, preceded with or followed by a closed questions


what are the primary effects of clarification

clarifies unclear client statements and verifies the accuracy of what the clinician heard


what is reflection of feeling

restatement or rephrasing of clearly stated emotion


what are the effects of reflection of feeling

enhances client's experience of therapist empathy and enourages furthur emotional expression


what are the guidelines for using reflection of feeling

reflect only the emotional content that you clearly hear the client say, don't probe, interpret, or speculate


what is summarization

a brief review of several topics covered during a session


what are the primary effects of summarization

demonstrates accurate listening, enhances recall of session content, ties together or integrates themes covered in a session


what are the guidelines of summarization

keep it informal, make it collaborative, and be supportive


what is the best approach when your client is in denial

listen and clarify what is important to the client


what is the best approach when your client wants an answer from you

educate them on therapy process, help them brainstorm for possible solutions, if they cannot come up with solution you may offer a few with caution


what is best approach when your client is overwhelmed

slow down, convey your understanding, triage (focus on most pressing issue that you can reasonably address first)


what are some counseling traps

directing, persuading to hard, rescuing the client, following to much and getting lost, overloading client with information, focusing on what you think is the problem


qualities of effective counselor

active listener, empathic, responds appropriately, self aware, attends to nonverbals


what are the limits to confidentiality

you have explicit permission in writing, court order (somtimes), your client is at risk of suicide, your client has specific plans to harm someone, you learn a minor/elderly is being physically or sexually abused or neglected,


what are characteristics of unethical counselors

ignorant, incompetent, insensitive, exploitative, irresponsible, vengeful, burned-out, lack boundaries, rationalize, those who slip


what are the steps to ethical decision making

determine if it is ethical issue, consult guidelines, consider all factors influencing decision, consult with colleagues, evaluate rights, responsibilities, vulnerability of all affected parties, generate alternative decisions, enumerate consequences of making each decision, make decision


what are the suicide risk factors

psychiatric illness, social and personal factors (social isolation, physical illness, cognition function, previous attempts, unemployement), demographics (male, white, risk increases with age)


suicide assessment includes

specificity, lethality, access/avaliability, proximity


what do you do when client expresses homocidality

ask for details, send a tarasoff warning, determine if they have means. Inform them they have to inform the authorities, hospitalize your client if necessary.