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1

Samsara

-Circle of birth and death
-Endless rebirth
-Trapped in cycle unless reach nirvana
-Position of rebirth determined by kharma
Cycle of chara: dukkha, anica, anatta

2

Kharma

-Deed or action
-Intentional
-Consequences shape future of person and next lives
-Causes samsara(end kharma and samsara through nirvana)

3

Theravada

-Teachings of the elders (nuns and monks/sanga)
-Differentiates w/ Mahayana
-The great vehicle
-East Asian

4

Sanga

-Monks and nun/ monastic community
-Theravada buddhism

5

The Buddha

-North India
-Actual human being
-"Awakened one"
-Someone who has gained enlightenment
-1 at a time (eon) or none at all
-Grew up in royal circumstance, disturbed by suffering
-Sat under tree, discovered path to nirvana

6

Arahat

-Monks that relize truth about reality (nirvana)
-Follow teachings of Buddha

7

Anica

-Transcience
-Everything changes

8

Dukkha

-Unsatisfactoriness
-Everything is unsatisfactory, even most pleasurable things because they end

9

Anatta

-No soul or self (permenent)

10

Dharma*

1. What the buddha taught (Tipitaka)
2. Natural law/ ultimate truth ab reality
3. Phenomena/(plural-dharmas) basic elements are always changing

11

Four Noble Truths*

-What Buddha taught after his enlightenment
1. All conditioned things (phenomena) are dukkha (unsatisfactory)
2. There is a cause of dukkha, which is craving (tanha)
3. There is an end to dukka, which is nirvana
4. There is a psath to nirvana= the noble 8fold path

12

Nirvana*

-Ultimate goal
-End of dukkha and samsara
-"Blowing out"
-Achieved by arahats

13

Noble 8fold Path*

-3 basic categories
1. Sila= moral virtue (vinaya and 5 precepts)
2. Samadhi= mental concentration
3. Panna= insight and wisdom
-4th noble truth, way to nirvana

14

Tipitaka*

-3 baskets/ 3 collections of Buddha's teachings
-25 volumes
-Learned orally from the Buddha
1. Vinaya-More discipline, followed by sanga
2. Sutta= discourses, "thus i have heard"
3. Abhidhamma= higher teaching, attempt to organize teachings

15

5 precepts*

-Basic standard of moral virtue for lay Buddhists
1. not to take like (including animals)
2. Not to take what is not given (stealing)
3. Not to engage in sexual misconduct
4. Avoid false and harmful speech (lying, gossip)
5. Avoid intoxicants

16

5 Factors of individuality/ aggregates

-What defines an individual/Buddhist analysis of what makes up a person
1. Materiality
2. Sensations- senses collect info
3. Perception-analysis/organization of info
4. Personality traits (intention/will)
5. Consciousness

17

Christ

-Jesus
-The Messiah= annointed one
-Earthly great king, chosen by God
-Fulfillment of prophecy
-Messiah for christians, not jews

18

Incarnation

-Turning into flesh
-God became human in Jesus Christ
-Jesus is fully human and fully divine

19

Salvation

-freedom from original sin
-Jesus died on the cross
-Adam and eve f'd up --> Jesus came into the world w/o original sin--> offering/sacrifice for rest of humanity "lamb of God" (no one else can do it)
*Associated w/ eternal life, incarnation, death, resurrection

20

Original sin

-Occurred due to Adam and Eve
-Violation caused humans to die, reproduce, and work
-Handed down generation to generation
-We suffer and die

21

Pentecost

-Laying of Holy Spirit on everyone
-Speaking in tongues
-40 days after Jesus ressurected

22

Ressurection

-After being dead, God brings Jesus back to life and rejoins his body and soul
-Fulfillment of Salvation
-Basis of belief of eternal life for all those dead

23

Eschatology

-Doctrines about the end of the world
-includes the belief that when Christ returns, there will be a last judgement

24

Apocolypse

-Refers to hidden knowledge about the end (the eschaton)

25

Kingdom of God

-idea comes from jewish tradition
-the establishment of gods kingdom on earth; perfect place (not heaven)
-Jesus= messiah,king, comes into the world to establish KoG
-Heals others, forgives sins
-Jewish expectation-> get rid of opressors
-Christian--> died on cross
*Jesus will return and finish his job

26

Prugatory

-where people who have sinned (not eternal sins) go to pay off the sin they've committed
-Once they pay it off, they go to heaven.

27

Sacrament

-an out word sign of an invisible blessing or grace
-performed or watched over by a priest
-protestants only believe in the first two (seen in Bible)
1. baptism
2. communion (Last Supper)/eucharist
2. confession
4. confirmation
5. marriage
6. holy orders/ordination
7. extreme unction

28

Communion/Eucharist

-Sacrament of receiving bread and wine as body and blood of Christ

29

Transubstantiation

-Doctrine that explains what happens during the communion:
-bread and wine are transformed into the actual body and blood of Christ

30

Confession

-ritual in which you go to priest and confess your sins
-part of seven sacraments
-marked by priests/jesus absolution

31

Confirmation

-ritual that marks full membership into community
-part of seven sacraments
-marked by oil/annointing

32

Extreme Unction/ Last Rites

-ritual performed as one approaches death
-receives anointment with oil
-part of seven sacraments

33

Bishops

-the central religious figure that had responsibility for the church (early days)
-ordain priests
-have authority to perform/oversee eucharist

34

Priests

-ordained by bishops
-have authority to perform/oversee eucharist
-NOT leaders of protestant communities

35

Creeds

-statements of belief/doctrine
-very important in christianity
-come from councils of bishop
*In response to conflict over orthodox teaching

36

Sin

-people who violate commandments of good christian practice after being baptized (christian ideal, not protestant)

37

Holy Spirit

-Power of God coming down to earth
-related to pentecost

38

Marriage

-union of man and woman (associated with reproduction)
-part of seven sacraments
-marked by wedding rings

39

Holy Order/ Ordination

-priest hood/celibacy
-part of seven sacraments

40

Lincoln Theses on Methods

"Theses on Methods"
1. Basic method of studying religion is history
-History sets terms of religion
2.Discourse-> speaking with authority
-Transcendent and eternal (God)
-People who speak in voice of religion speak in divine authority
-Temporal=time
5. Reverence-> good conscience trumps good manners
6. People wouldn't protect their own religion as much as they would respect others beliefs
-Commitment to respect of others shouldn't stop you from pursuing truth

41

Carter- In the Company of Friends

-Exploring what it means to understand something
-Aha! moment
-What do u need in order to understand religion?
-Talk to religious people
-Supported by knowledge and critical understanding
-Progressive
*Search for understanding
*Interreligious dialogue--> personal understanding, subjective

42

Berger

-Society is the product of man and man is the product of society
-Human language is foundational to being a human being
-Socialized into gender constructs
-Man wants to externalize out into universe
-W/o religion--> chaos
-Appealing to an order that goes beyond
*In order to understand religion, must understand society
*Religion is attempt to understand universe as humanly significant

43

Rosaldo

-Anthropologist--> emphasizes objective point of view
-Generalizations= problem
-Headhunters, Rosaldo doesn't understand
*We cannot generalize, we must acknowledge point of view!!

44

Warne

-Study of theo is exclusively male
-Women= emotional, biased, political, sensitive, children
-Men=leadership, commerce, warrior
*Normative values and ideals define good work--> putting them into question is bad

45

Lincoln Undiscipline of Religion

-Historically, study of religion critical and hostile (Europe)
-USA- lets affirm everyone's faith
-Religion tied up in power issues and politics

46

Similarities between Carter and Lincoln

-Both seek truth, religion is commited to truth
-Dissatisfied w/ study of religion

47

Cosmos (Berger)

-Nature/structure of reality
-Universial order
*Religion allows us to assert cosmic order over our impending deaths, appeal to higher order

48

Nomos (Berger)

-Meaningful order for groups
-Communities set of rules, moral order

49

Cosmization (Berger)

-Making/turning something into overarching order
-Nomos gets anchored into the cosmos
*Linking with human order and overarching order= religion
-Human world building

50

Positioned Subject (Rosaldo)

-All scholarly analysis reflects a position
-People are inculturated (particular way of seeing the world)
*Life experiences enable or inhibit types of insight
-Rosaldo didn't understand headhunting until wifes death
*Gender identitiy is always given to a person
-We are often biased bcuz of diff positions (hard to be objective)
-Objective= male, subjective=female

51

Gender

-2 categories based on sexual organs
-Social identities or roles go beyond this
-We are socialized into gender roles, where we are raised
*Analysis of Genesis
-Reflection of interpreter/ community
-Analysis is based on position
-Used to justify inequality, social heirarchy
-Religious people read these texts in different ways

52

Androcentrism

-Male as center or norm of tradition (explicit or unconcious)
-Ex: Berger using mankind
*Warne article, Rosaldo
Ex 2: scholarly writers exclusively men, do not address gender differnces( women needed to reflect new perspectives)

53

Sacred Biography

-Tells the story of religious figures that highlight their humanity and uniqueness
-How they are models for followers
-Beyond scale of expectations
-Story of Gotama Buddha and Gospel of Matthew

54

Last words of the Buddha

-"decay is inherent, strive on diligently"
-My death is the nature of things
-Strive to attain arhatship
-He is gone

55

Last words of Jesus

-"Go therefore and make disciples of all nations... I am with you always"
-Jesus continues to be present to followers
-Expected to return, until then HS is with him

56

Lincoln in General

-Sociological, critical
-We cannot study religion based off of religious people
-Have to be objective