Midterm Exam Study Guide Herbals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Midterm Exam Study Guide Herbals Deck (9)
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1

HERBALS

  • Drug interactions, SE: 
  • ◦Black Cohosh- hepatotoxic, decreases LH, used for menopausal symptoms
  • ◦Flax seed –can increase triglycerides; may slow absorption of meds
  • ◦Green tea- kidney stones if more than 5 cups per day; lots of drug interactions
  • ◦Aloe vera- orally can cause pain & diarrhea; lowers blood sugar; inhibits deep wound healing
  • ◦Stevia-drug interaction with Lithium

2

St. John’s wort

  • lowers blood levels of protease inhibitors
  • acts like MAOI (tyramine-free diet);
  • may decrease effectiveness of oral contraceptives, opioids, statins
  • Herbal products metabolized by same cytochrome enzyme system as psychotropics; may increase or decrease therapeutic drug levels

3

KAVA

  • Kava proposed to have anxiolytic, sedative, and muscle relaxant properties
  • Onset of action within 2-4 weeks
  • Chronic overuse combined with alcohol or other drugs and preexisting liver conditions may contribute to severe liver damage

4

VALERIAN

  • Herbal product for insomnia
  • Side effects: potentiation of other CNS depressants, blurred vision, headache, nausea, excitability
  • Small studies have shown can improve sleep latency and restorative sleep in mild to moderate insomnia

5

KUDZU

  • Kudzu has been studied for its effects on alcoholism
  • Kudzu may reduce the desire to drink and prevent a slip from becoming a relapse 

6

GINKGO BILOBA

  • Studied for its cognitive-enhancing effects, specifically in Alzheimer disease
  • Meta-analysis of ginkgo for age-related cognitive impairment and dementias showed modest but inconsistent benefits:
    • activities of daily living
    • Mood
    • cognitive function

DEMENTIA GINKGO BILOBA

  • May act by dilating blood vessels and
  • increasing blood supply, reducing blood viscosity, decreasing free radicals, altering neurotransmitter levels
  • May have results in 4-6 weeks
  • Side effects: GI upset, skin reactions, headache, dizziness
  • May interact with anticoagulants and aspirin to increase bleeding risk

7

S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE (SAMe)

  • Dietary supplement used to treat mild to moderate depression
  • Naturally occurring; found in living cells
  • A few randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies found SAMe more effective than placebo and as effective as several TCAs (older antidepressants) to treat depression

8

SLEEP HYGIENE

  •     Relax before bed
  •     Make bed comfy
  •     Turn lights off
  •     Use bed for only Sleep and Sex!!

9

BASIC

PSYCHOTHERAPIES

  • Containment: consistent limit setting essential for impatient care; time-outs, specified observation periods, special precautions
  • Support: help patients feel better, enhance self-esteem, unconditional acceptance of patient but not the behavior, promote security and comfort while lessening anxiety
  • Communication: empathy, offering encouragement and reassurance, education
  • Engagement in activities: exercise, yoga, meditation
  • Group therapy: help patient meet peers who are experiencing similar difficulties
  • Structure: dependability in activity, staff, environment; predictable timetable of activities; setting limits by using contracts, token economies, expecting attendance at meetings and groups