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Flashcards in MidTerm Material Deck (47):
1

Lag warning signs @ 6m
--General:

--no smiling
--jerky/spastic movements
--does not recognize parents

2

Lag warning signs @ 6m
--Hearing & speech

--failure to turn toward sound
--does not laugh, squeal, or vocalize sounds

3

Lag warning signs @ 6m
--Vision

--failure to fix or follower & far objects

4

Lag warning signs @ 6m
--Arms:

--failure to keep head steady when pulled to sitting position
--persistent fisting
--failure to push up or roll over

5

normal child developments
3/4/6/9/11/12m

3 = hold head up
4 = roll over
6 = sits up w/ help & grabs things
9 = ~crawl/ sits
11 = stands & throws ball
12 = walk/crawl freely

6

history taking tips

--open ended Q's
--connect w. parents & child
--periodically summarize info
--ask "is there anything else I should know"

7

Ill infant

--fever, vitals, rash? and SEARCH signs, mental status abnormalities
--growth normal?? *anterior frontanelle
--BM 1/2 to 3-6/day, urine 6-8 wet dipers/day, feeding 2-4 hours

8

caput succedaneum =

--diffuse swelling of soft tissues
--extends across suture lines
--disappears w/in first few days of life

9

cephalohematoma-subperiosteal hemorrhage

--never crosses suture lines
--visible swelling
--may not be visible for a few hours
--disappears in ~6wks

10

languo =

fine body hair on shoulders, forehead, and back

11

milia-

small white papules on nose, cheeks, and chin

12

erythema toxic =

macular eruption common in light skin newborns
-- ~1 wk

13

stork's bite-birthmark

upper eyelids, forehead, nape of neck.
--disappear by 1 year

14

mongolian spots

--dark blue
--lower back/butt
--MC = darker complexioned infants of all races
--disappear w/in first 4 years

15

primitive reflexes

--grasp
--magnet
--rooting
--sucking
--babinski
--galant
--moro
--fencer
--placing
--stepping

16

grasp
-primitive reflexes

--finger in infant's palm = they grab it.
--grabs stronger as finger is pulled upward.
--disappears by 2-4m

17

Magnet
-primitive reflexes

--placing a finger just proximal to the toes on the sole of the foot
(btw ball of foot & toes)
--causes toes to flex around the finger
--disappears by 2-3m

18

Rooting [awake]
-primitive reflexes

touch corner of infant's mouth = lower lip drops ipsilaterally & tongue moves towards stimulus.
--disappears by 3-4m

19

Sucking
-primitive reflexes

placing something in the mouth = baby sucks

20

babinski
-primitive reflexes

--firm stroke from heel toward the toes
= great toe to flex up & other toes fan out
NORMAL in kid <18m
...past = pyramidal tract lesion

21

Galant
-primitive reflexes

--stroking the infant's paravertebral skin causes lateral flexion of the trunk toward the ipsilateral side
--disappears 2-3m

22

Moro
-primitive reflexes

--allowing the infant's head to drop back suddenly causes abduction and upward movement of arms, followed by adduction & flexion
--disappears <4m
...maybe brain damage or brachial plexus

23

Fencer
-primitive reflexes

(asymmetric tonic neck)
--supine
--rotate head to one side causes ipsilateral ext of the extremities & contra flex of the extremities
--Disappears by 3-4m

24

Placing
-primitive reflexes

--stroking the anterior tibia or dorm of the foot against a table causes the infant to raise the leg as if to step onto the table

25

denver development chart =

--gross motor
--fine motor
--personal-social
--language

26

growth chart =

--height
--weight
--head circumference

27

APGAR =

--appearance-color
--pulse-heart rate
--grimace-reflex irritability
--activity-muscle tone
--respiratory effort

28

stepping
--primitive reflex

holding the infant upright & leaning slightly forward causes alternate flexion & extension of the legs which mimics walking.
--disappears by <3m

29

Newborn screening tests

--PKU
--Sickle cell anemia
--congenital hypothyroidism
--galactosemia
--biotinidase deficiency
--congenital adrenal hyperplasia
--cystic fibrosis
--hearing loss

30

PKU-babies:

= cannot process phenylalanine
--w.o Tx = build up of phenylalanine in blood & causes brain damage & mental retardation

31

SIDS prevention

--place baby on back on firm, tight fitting mattress
--remove all pillows, quilts & comforters
--never put baby to sleep in waterbed, sofa, soft mattress, pillow...etc.
--if at risk: there are monitoring devices for heart & respiratory rate to use while baby sleeps

32

infant colic syndrome

excessive, inconsolable crying episodes in a healthy infant.
--0-3months old
-->3hrs/day
-->3hrs/wk
-->3 weeks
--usually occurs at the same time each day.

33

possible nursing advice

--keep infant in upright position during feeding
--burp more often
--nursing more often: small & frequent
--keep the infant in an upright position about 30 mins after feeding

34

pyloric stenosis

--congenital stenosis of valve b/w ST & SI
--linked to poor neuromuscular control & poor breastfeeding
--projectile vomiting from 1st wk/m up until 5m
--immediate referral...surgical approach may be needed

35

intussusception

--intestines are more mobile in infancy and can fold in on itself causing obstruction
--MC cause of bowel obstruction in <2y.o.

36

dehydration

--signs: loss of skin turgor, dry mucous membranes, depression of anterior fontanelle.
--diarrhea-feed babies over 6m the "BRAT" diet which is bananas, rice, applesauce, toast

37

doll eye relfex

3m

38

clonus

<4m

39

palmar grasp

3-4m

40

blink reflex

3-6m

41

plantar grasp

8-10m

42

rooting [asleep]

7-8m

43

plantar grasp

8-10m

44

sucking

10-12m

45

Heart Rate =

120-140
sleeping = 100
crying = 180

46

respiration

30-60

47

blood pressure

systolic = 60-80
diastolic 40-50