Midterm Part 1 Therapeutic Order, Kinematics, Osteokinematics, Classification of Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Midterm Part 1 Therapeutic Order, Kinematics, Osteokinematics, Classification of Joints Deck (45)
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1
Q

Biomechanics and what part of the therapeutic order? What is it?

A

4 Correct Structural Integrity

2
Q

How do the two orders differ of #4 Correct Structural Integrity?

A

… manipulation, therapeutic exercise, massage or surgery for:

First Order: microtrauma, macrotrauma, repetitive stress, postural syndromes, congenital conditions

Second Order: structural problems that are a result of stress upon internal systems e.g. digestive disorders

3
Q

Divisions of ANS?

A

Symp: T1-L2
Para: CN, Sacral

4
Q

Kinesiology Definition

A

the study of motion or human movement

5
Q

Biomechanics

A

applies principles of physics to human motion

6
Q

Kinematics

A

the branch of biomechanics that describes the motion of the body, wo regard to forces or torque that may produce the motion

2 branches: osteokinematics, arthrokinematics

7
Q

Osteokinematics

A

gross motion of joints in the cardinal planes

8
Q

Arthrokinematics

A

fine bone on bone motions within joints

9
Q

somato-visceral influences…

A

via central, peripheral, autonomic nervous systems

ex. back hurts, so stomach hurts

10
Q

viscero-somatic influences…

A

via central, peripheral, autonomic nervous systems

ex. stomach hurts so back hurts

11
Q

viscero-visceral influences

A

local - influencing the structure which generated the impulses

systemic - influencing other structures in response to a given stimuli

one organ affects another organ

12
Q

pyscho-somato-visceral reflexes…

A

the mind influences the body and vice versa via complex interconnections and interactions

13
Q

Translation, a type of kinematic motion is?

it can glide in a straight line. name?

it can glide in a curved line. name?

A

Translation is a linear motion in which all parts of a body move in the same directions.
Rectilinear - straight line.
Curvilinear - may glide in a curved line.

14
Q

Rotation, a type of kinematic movement, is what?

A

motion in which body parts move in a circular path around a pivot point (axis of motion)

15
Q

Movement of the body in either translation or rotation can be described in what two ways? what do both mean?

A

active and passive.

active is movement caused by muscle action.
passive is movement caused by sources outside the body…. gravity.

16
Q

Planes of motion are?

A

sagittal, frontal, transverse (axial)

17
Q

What is the axis of motion?

A

imaginary line perpendicular to the plane of motion and passing through the center of rotation. “motion revolves around an axis”

18
Q

Axes are?

A

X - frontal (coronal)
Y - longitudinal (vertical)
Z - sagittal

19
Q

What motion happens in a sagittal plane on a frontal axis?

A

flexion and extension

20
Q

what motion happens in a frontal plane on a sagittal axis?

A

abduction and adduction

21
Q

what motion happens in a transverse plane on a longitudinal axis?

A

rotation

22
Q

Linear Motion Definition

give examples

A

aka gliding
motion of one flat bone gliding over another.

metacarpal, metatarsal, vertebral facet joints

23
Q

Angular Motion Definition

give examples

A

aka rotation
motion causing either an increase or decrease in the angle between two bones.

flexion (reduces angle), extension (increases angle), hyperextension, abduction (away from vertical axis), adduction, circumduction (wo rotation -combo of flexion, abd, ext, add in succession)

24
Q

Open Kinematic Chain Definition

A

distal segment not fixed. tibia moves on femur.

25
Q

closed kinematic chain definition

A

distal segment fixed. femur moves on tibia.

26
Q

structural classification of immovable joints fall under…

A

Fibrous - generall immovable

Cartilaginous - some immovable

27
Q

structural classification of slightly movable joints falls under…

A

cartilaginous - some slightly movable

28
Q

structural classification of generally freely movable joints falls under…

A

synovial joints

29
Q

joint: bones joined by dense fibrous tissue w no joint cavity. 3 types?

A

fibrous joints

  • suture, gomphosis, syndesmosis
30
Q

a suture is what kind of joint? where?

A

fibrous joint. only between bones of skull.

31
Q

gomphosis is what kind of joint? where?

A

fibrous joint.
“peg-in-socket”
tooth in alveolar socket.

32
Q

syndesmosis is what kind of joint? where?

A

fibrous joint.

bones connected by ligament - cord or band - amount of movement depends on length of fibers

33
Q

Def of Cartilaginous Joint. 2 types?

A

bones connected by some form of cartilage w no joint cavity - synarthrodial or amphiarthrodial.

2 types: synchondrosis, symphysis

34
Q

Synchondrosis is what kind of joint? where?

A

cartilaginous joint.

bones connected by hyaline cartilage. ex. costosternal joint.

35
Q

Symphysis is what kind of joint? where?

A

cartilaginous joint.

articular surfaces of bones are covered w hyaline cartilage.

ex. intervertebral joints, pubic symphysis

36
Q

Common names of synovial joints:

A
  • gliding
  • hinge
  • pivot
  • condyloid
  • saddle
  • ball-and-socket
37
Q

Synovial Joint is?

A

bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity connected by ligaments of dense CT. freedom of movement.

  • articular cartilage, capsule, cavity, fluid, ligaments
38
Q

What are some additional features of synovial joints?

A
  • fat pads
  • fibrocartilage disc
  • bursae
  • tendon sheath
39
Q

Factors affecting synovial joint stability are?

A

shape of articular surfaces.

number and position of ligaments.

muscle tone.

40
Q

Gliding joint is a what joint? examples?

A

synovial.
nonaxial.

ex.
facet joints of vertebrae, inter-carpal, inter-tarsal joints

41
Q

guess what kind of joint a hinge (ginglymus) joint is? its motion? examples?

A

synovial.

motion around an axis perpendicular to the long axis of a bone.
> flex, ext.

e. ulna and humerus.

femur and tibia at knee.

finger and toe joints.

42
Q

Pivot joint is a what type of joint? motion? examples?

A

synovial joint.

motion around single axis parallel to the long axis of a bone.

ex. atlantoaxial joint, proximal radioulnar joint

43
Q

Condyloid (ellipsoid) joint is what kind of joint? motion? examples?

A

synovial joint.
motion around two axes (biaxial)
> oval articular surface and oval complementary depression
> permits all angular motions

ex. radiocarpal joint (wrist)

metacarpophalangeal joints

44
Q

Saddle (sellar) joint is what kind of joint? motion? examples?

A

synovial joint.
motion around two axes (biaxial)
> saddle articular surface
> permits flex, ext, add, abd, slight rotation, circumduction

ex. THUMB

45
Q

Ball-and-socket is what kind of joint? motion? examples?

A

synovial.
triaxial.
flex, ext, add, abd, rot, diag movements, circum

ex.
head of humerus into glenoid cavity

femur into acetabulum