Midterm Review '19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Midterm Review '19 Deck (35)
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1

Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese captain of the first crew to circumnavigate the globe

2

Christopher Columbus

Explorer who accidentally discovered North America while searching for alternate route to India

3

True or False? Europeans believed the Earth was flat and worried that Columbus would never reach India

False! The scientific community knew the Earth was a sphere

4

The Middleman Problem

Arab & Italian merchants controlled access to India and forced Europeans to pay higher prices for spices; inspired the age of exploration

5

Cartographers

Expert map makers who enabled exploration

6

Astrolabe

A device used to help sailors navigate the ocean by calculating latitude (enabled exploration)

7

Caravel

An advanced ship that incorporated elements of European and Asian naval technology

8

Prince Henry (The Navigator)

Portuguese king who invaded Africa on his way to India; established European presence along African coastline & waged wars against African rulers

9

Major Goals of European Exploration

1) Acquire Spices
2) Acquire Gold/Silver/Precious Resources
3) Convert Natives to Christianity

10

Why did the Spanish agree to fund Christopher Columbus' expedition to find an alternate route to India?

The Spanish king and queen hoped to boost their nation's reputation and economy

11

Treaty of Tordesillas

Pope divided contested territories in the New World; gave Spain much of Central America, Portugal received Brazil

The indigenous peoples who already lived in these places had no say

12

Mughal Empire

-Powerful empire in India led by Muslim rulers
-Dominated trade
-Europeans could not defeat the Mughals, instead asked to build forts for trade

13

Collapse of the Mughal Empire

The Indian empire fell apart because of:
1) Poor leadership late in the empire
2) Religious intolerance & war
3) Peasant rebellions caused by taxes

Europeans took advantage of these internal issues and fought for control of Indian subcontinent

14

Sepoy

Indian soldiers who fought for European trading companies (British & French)

15

Missionaries

European explorers who attempted to convert natives to Christianity

16

European-Indigenous Relations

Europeans tended to look down on native peoples, whom they considered inferior

The Chinese proved to be an odd exception: Europeans saw the Chinese as an advanced people, largely because they considered the Chinese to be like themselves in terms of politics, language, and culture (ironically the Chinese saw the Europeans as being inferior)

17

Indigenous peoples

Native peoples

18

The Qing Dynasty

Peaceful & prosperous period in China characterized by strong Manchu rulers

During the Qing Dynasty, China's population & economy boomed

19

Qianlong & Lord Macartney

Qianlong- Manchu ruler
Macartney- British representative

Macartney offended the Chinese by talking about British advancements, failure to bow to the Chinese ruler

Qianlong, in turn, assumed that the British knew they were inferior and only sent a representative to offer the superior Chinese government tribute (free goods)

20

Eurocentrism

A worldview that Europeans held whereby they considered themselves superior to everyone else

Influenced how the Europeans interacted with indigenous peoples

21

Korea & the Age of Exploration

Korea turned inward and did not engage in exploration because of successive invasions during the Qing Dynasty

22

La Malinche (Doña Maria)

Native woman who helped the Spanish invade the Aztec Empire

23

Hernan Cortés

Spanish conquistador who invaded & overthrew the Aztec empire with the help of smallpox

24

Columbian Exchange

The transfer of goods within the Atlantic World

Europeans brought to the New World (the Americas) diseases and took goods, such as chocolate and precious resources, to the Old World (Europe)

25

The Atlantic World

Europe, Africa, North & South America

As peoples moved, communicated, and traded between these contents, they created a community centered around the Atlantic Ocean

26

Mercantilism

Economic system characterized by belief in finite (limited) wealth, efforts to keep resources within empires

27

Encomienda

Labor system in the New World characterized by abuses

The Spanish forced Indians to labor in a quasi-slavery state

28

Intra-African Slave Trade (Africans Trading Africans)

Defining Characteristics:
1) Rarely permanent
2) Based on war
3) Slaves could move up in society, marry, and regain freedom

29

Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade (Europeans Trading Africans)

Defining Characteristics:
1) Permanent
2) Based on race
3) Slaves could never move up in society

30

Effects of Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade in Africa

Consequences
1) Changed African behaviors, increased wars
2) Slave traders slowly expanded deeper into the African continent, affected larger areas
3) Devastated Africa's demography (population negatively affected by selective capture of many men)

Some African leaders, such as Alfonso I, fought against the slave trade; others saw it as lucrative and helped to expand it