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Flashcards in Midterm Review Deck (30):
1

Theological basis for counseling

2 Corinthians 1:1-5
Matthew 11:28-30
2 Corinthians 4:6-8
Galatians 6:1-6
When were Job’s friends most helpful?

2

A reflective practitioner

First, they must try to rid themselves of their psychological problems

Second, to recognize the therapist and patient are made up of the same moral stuff

3

Perry’s stages of development

Right / Wrong
Multiplistic Stage
Relativistic stage

4

Carl Rogers’ three essential personal characteristics

Congruence / Genuine
Positive Regard
Empathy

5

The stages of the helping process

1. Relationship building and opening up
2. Assessment/information gathering
3. Goal setting / Treatment planning
4. Intervention and action
5. Outcome evaluation and reflection

6

Characteristics of a therapeutic relationship compared to a friendship

Focus on the client’s issues/welfare

A professional helper discusses personal issues not usually addressed in a friendship

A contract to initiate change, which includes commitment and confidentiality

Helper may receive some form of compensation

7

Self-Disclosure guidelines

– Brief
– good timing
– sensitivity to mismatch

8

Use of self statements

“We will . . . "
"I find myself reluctant. . ."
“I am feeling. . .”

9

Self-Disclosure Mistakes

too deep
poorly timed
not matching client’s experience

10

Relationship enhancers

Squarely
Open posture - body language
Leaning toward client - proximity
Attending behavior
Relaxed

11

Transference

(Client) carry over of feelings of past relationships to new ones

12

Major transference patterns

Ideal, seer, nurturer, frustrator, nonentity

13

Nonverbal messages

80% of communication is nonverbal
38% of emotions conveyed by the voice
55% of emotions conveyed by the face
Only 7% of emotions conveyed verbally

14

Dissonance

We are motivated to keep cognitions such as values, beliefs, and attitudes consistent

15

Opening skills

Openers - What is on your mind? Heart? What would you like to talk about?

What will happen here that will make it worthwhile to you that we have spent this time together?

16

Issues regarding questions and skills

• Bombardment / grilling
• Multiple questions
• Questions as statements
• Cultural differences
• Control dimensions
• “Why?”

17

Four functions served by reflecting skills

• Communicate empathy
• Form of feedback / mirror to confirm or correct
• Stimulates further exploration
• Captures important aspects of client messages that otherwise may be missed

18

Common problems in paraphrasing

• Simply reciting the facts
• Mental noise
• Worrying about what to say next
• Being Judgmental/taking the client’s side

19

Mental noise

• Your own thoughts / experiences / emotions
• What will I ask next?
• Being judgmental / taking sides

20

Common problems in reflecting feelings

• Closed question – “How did you feel?” vs. open question – Can you tell me how you are feeling?
• Waiting too long.. . afraid to interrupt. . .letting a client ramble
• Reflection as a question
• Combining a reflection and a question
• Focusing on others instead of your client

21

Nonjudgmental listening cycle & its components

• Open Question
• Minimal Encourager
• Door Opener
• Paraphrase
• Reflection of Feeling
• Reflection of Meaning
• Summary

22

Inner-circle strategy

• Level A - Very personal issues
• Levels B, C, & D - Increasingly private issues
• Level E - Public issues

23

When it is beneficial to confront clients . . .

1. They are operating on misinformation about the self
2. They are operating with mistaken ideas and irrational beliefs
3. They misinterpret the actions of others
4. They are blaming others rather than examining themselves
5. Their behavior, thoughts, feelings and values are inconsistent
6. They are not operating according to their own values
7. They are not working on the goals that they participated in setting

24

3 different Roles in Counseling

• Shepherd
• Priest
• Prophet

25

The ingredients of effective counseling according to Dr. Gray

• Relationship (trust, different viewpoint, hope)
• Insight
• Feelings
• Behavior change
• Time passing
• Prayer

26

The Therapeutic Relationship

• 40%: client and extra therapeutic factors (such as ego strength, social support, etc.)
• 30%: therapeutic relationship (such as empathy, warmth, and encouragement of risk-taking)
• 15%: expectancy and placebo effects
• 15%: techniques unique to specific therapies

27

What helps establish the therapeutic relationship?

Helper is nonjudgmental
• Helper’s self-disclosure
• Validation of feelings
• Normalization of feelings
• Helper’s commitment to help
• Helper’s use of humor
• Helper’s listening skills and nonverbal behavior
• Client’s choice

28

What direction do I go in?

Think
Act
Feel
Believe

29

Types of discrepancies

Incongruities between:
• verbal and nonverbal messages
• beliefs and experiences
• values and how the client behaves
• What the client says and does
• experience and plans
• Two verbal messages

30

Confrontation function

Point out discrepancies in client beliefs, behaviors, words or nonverbal messages