Midterm Terminology Flashcards Preview

Intro to Music Literature > Midterm Terminology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm Terminology Deck (88):
1

Gregorian chant (plainsong)

a large body of unaccompanied monophonic vocal music, set to Latin texts, composed for the Western Church over the course of fifteen centuries, from the time of earliest fathers to the Council of Trent (1545-1563)

2

syllabic singing

a style of singing in which each syllable of text has one, and only one, note; the opposite of melismatic singing

3

melismatic singing

many notes sung to just one syllable

4

organum

the name given to the early polyphony of the Western Church from the ninth through the thirteenth centuries

5

tenor

the highest male vocal range

6

Mass

the central religious service of the Roman Catholic Church, one that incorporates singing for spiritual reflection or as accompaniment to sacred texts

7

Proper of the Mass

the sections of the Mass that are sung to texts that vary with each feast day

8

Ordinary of the Mass

the five sung portions of the Mass for which the texts are unvariable

9

vielle

medieval fiddle

10

humanism

Renaissance belief that people have the capacity to create many things good and beautiful; it rejoiced in the human form in all its fullness, looked outward, and indulged a passion for invention and discovery

11

motet

a composition for choir or larger chorus setting a religious, devotional, or solemn text; often sung a cappella

12

a cappella

a term applied to unaccompanied vocal music; originated in the expression "a cappella Sistana", "in the Sistine Chapel" of the pope, where instruments were forbidden to accompany the singers

13

imitation

the process by which one or more musical voices, or parts, enter and duplicate exactly for a period of time the music presented by the previous voice

14

pavane

slow, gliding Renaissance dance in duple meter performed by couples holding hands

15

galliard

fast, leaping Renaissance dance in triple meter

16

madrigal

a popular genre of secular vocal music that originated in Italy during the Renaissance, in which usually four or five voices sing love poems

17

word painting

the process of depicting the text in music, be it subtly, overtly, or even jokingly, by means of expressive musical devices

18

madrigalism

a device, originating in the madrigal, by which key words in a text spark a particularly expressive musical setting

19

Baroque

term used to describe the arts generally during the period 1600-1750 and signifying excess and extravagance

20

Renaissance

literally "rebirth"; historians use the term to designate a period of intellectual and artistic flowering that occurred first in Italy, then in France, and finally in England, during the years 1350-1600; music historians apply the term more narrowly to musical developments in those same countries during the period 1450-1600

21

Medieval

term used to refer to the thousand years of history between the fall of the Roman Empire (476) and the dawn of the Age of Discovery (mid-1400s, culminating in the voyages of Christopher Columbus)

22

Classical

the music of the period 1750-1820

23

monody

a general term connoting solo singing accompanied by a "basso continuo" in the early Baroque period

24

basso continuo

a small ensemble of at least two instrumentalists who provide a foundation for the melody or melodies above; heard almost exclusively in Baroque music

25

basso ostinato

a motive or phrase in the bass that is repeated again and again

26

ground bass

the English term for "basso ostinato"

27

walking bass

a bass line that moves at a moderate pace, mostly in equal note values, and often stepwise up or down the scale

28

lament bass

a chromatic walking bass

29

figured bass

in musical notation, numerical shorthand that tells the player which unwritten notes to fill in above the written bass note

30

terraced dynamics

a term used to describe the sharp, abrupt dynamic contrasts found in the music of the Baroque era

31

opera

a dramatic work in which the actors sing some or all of their parts, it usually makes use of elaborate stage sets and costumes

32

libretto

the text of an opera

33

recitative

musically heightened speech, often used in an opera, oratorio, or cantata to report dramatic action and advance the plot

34

simple recitative

recitative accompanied only by a basso continuo or a harpsichord, and not the full orchestra

35

aria

an elaborate lyrical song for solo voice

36

arioso

a style of singing and a type of song midway between an aria and a recitative

37

vocal ensemble

in opera, a group of four or more solo singers, usually the principles

38

chamber music

music, usually instrumental music, performed in a small concert hall or private residence with just one performer on each part

39

cantata

a term originally meaning "something sung"; in its mature state, it consists of several movements, including one or more arias, ariosos, and recitatives; cantatas can be on secular subjects and intended for private performance or on religious subjects

40

chamber cantata

a cantata performed before a select audience in a private residence; intimate vocal chamber music, principally of the Baroque era

41

idiomatic writing

musical composition that exploits the strengths and avoids the weaknesses of particular voices and instruments

42

orchestra

the large instrumental ensemble that plays symphonies, overtures, concertos, and the like

43

overture

an introductory movement, usually for orchestra, that precedes an opera, oratorio, or a dance suite

44

French overture

an overture style developed by Jean-Baptiste Lully with two sections, the first slow in duple meter with dotted note values, the second fast in triple meter and with light imitation; the first section can be repeated after the second

45

sonata

originally, "something sounded" on an instrument as opposed to something sung (a "cantata"); later, a multi-movement work for solo instrument, or instrument with keyboard accompaniment

46

chamber sonata

a suite for keyboard or small instrumental ensemble made up of individual dance movements

47

solo sonata

a work, usually in three or four movements, for keyboard or other solo instrument; when a solo melodic instrument played a sonata in the Baroque era, it was supported by the "basso continuo"

48

concerto grosso

a multi-movement concerto of the Baroque era that pits the sound of a small group of soloists (the concertino) against that of the full orchestra (the tutti)

49

concertino

the group of instruments that function as soloists in a concerto grosso

50

tutti

(Italian for "all") the full orchestra or full performing force

51

ritornello form

Italian for "return" or "refrain"; form in a Baroque concerto grosso in which all or part of the main theme (ritornello) returns again and again, invariably played by the tutti, or full orchestra

52

Brandenburg Concertos

set of six concerti grossi composed by J. S. Bach between 1711 and 1720, and subsequently dedicated to Margrave Christian Ludwig of Brandenburg

53

The Art of Fugue

Bach's last project (1742-1750), an encyclopedic treatment of all known contrapuntal procedures, set forth in nineteen canons and fugues

54

fugue

a composition for three, four, or five parts played or sung by voices or a subject in imitation in each part and continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint and further appearances of the subject

55

exposition

in a fugue, the opening section, in which each voice in turn has the opportunity to present the subject, in sonata-allegro form, the principal section, in which all thematic material is presented

56

episode

a passage of free, nonimitative counterpoint found in a fugue

57

subject

the term for the principle theme in a fugue

58

pedal point

a note, usually in the bass, sustained or continually repeated for a period of time while the harmonies change around it

59

cadenza

a showy passage for the soloist appearing near the end of the movement in a concerto; usually incorporates rapid runs, arpeggios, and snippets of previously heard themes into a fantasy-like improvisation

60

chorale

the German word for the hymn of the Lutheran Church; hence a simple religious melody to be sung by the congregation

61

da capo form

ternary (ABA) form for an aria, so called because the performers, when reaching the end of B, "take it from the head" and repeat A

62

dance suite

a collection of instrumental dances, each with its own distinctive rhythm and character

63

opera seria

a genre of opera that dominated the stage during the Baroque era, making use of serious historical or mythological subjects, da capo arias, and lengthy overtures

64

opera buffa

Italian for "comic opera"; a genre of opera featuring light, often domestic subjects, with tuneful melodies, comic situations, and happy endings

65

Singspiel

German for "singing play"; a musical comedy originating in Germany with spoken dialogue, tuneful songs, and topical humor

66

oratorio

a large-scale genre of sacred music involving an overture, arias, recitatives, and choruses, but sung, whether in a theater or a church, with-out costumes or scenery

67

pastoral aria

aria with several distinctive musical characteristics, all of which suggest pastoral scenes and the movement of simple shepherds attending the Christ Child

68

Alberti bass

a pattern of accompaniment whereby, instead of having the pitches of a chord sound all together, the notes are played in succession to provide a continual stream of sound

69

Enlightenment

eighteenth-century period in philosophy and letters during which thinkers gave free rein to the pursuit of truth and the discovery of natural laws

70

pianoforte

the original name for the piano

71

Viennese School

group of Classical composers, including Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Schubert, whose careers all unfolded in Vienna

72

Freemasons

fraternity of the Enlightenment who believed in tolerance and universal brotherhood

73

ternary form

a three-part musical form in which the third section is a repeat of the first; hence ABA

74

relative major

the major key in a pair of major and minor keys; relative keys have the same key signature

75

minuet

a moderate dance in 3/4, though actually danced in patterns of six steps, with no upbeat but with highly symmetrical phrasing

76

trio

an ensemble, vocal or instrumental, with three performers; also, a brief, self-contained composition contrasting with a previous piece, such as a minuet or a mazurka; originally, the trio was performed by only three instruments

77

serenade

an instrumental work for a small ensemble originally intended as a light entertainment in the evening

78

sonata-allegro form

a dramatic musical form that originated in the Classical period involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda

79

transition

in sonata-allegro form, the unstable section in which the tonality changes from tonic to dominant (or relative major) in preparation for the appearance of the second theme

80

development

the center-most portion of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is developed and extended, transformed, or reduced to its essence; often the most confrontational and unstable section of the movement

81

recapitulation

in sonata-allegro form, the return to the first theme and the tonic key following the development

82

coda

Italian for "tail"; a final and concluding section of a musical composition

83

theme and variations

a musical form in which a theme continually returns but is varied by changing the notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature of the music

84

rondo form

classical form with at least three statements of the refrain (A) and at least two contrasting sections (at least B and C); placement of the refrain creates symmetrical patterns such as ABACA, ABACABA, or even ABACADA

85

symphony

a genre of instrumental music for orchestra consisting of several movements; also, the orchestra ensemble that plays this genre

86

string quartet

a standard instrumental ensemble for chamber music consisting of a single first and second violin, a viola, and a cello; also, the genre of music, usually in three of four movements, composed for this ensemble

87

scherzo

Italian for "joke"; a rapid, jovial work in triple meter often used in place of the minuet as the third movement in a string quartet or symphony

88

double exposition concerto form

a form, originating in the concerto of the Classical period, in which first the orchestra and then the soloist present the primary thematic material