Lascaux cave painting
15,000 – 10,000 BCE
Fremont rock painting
Note: Use of grid to divide space; images to represent words.
Sumerian clay tablet
Note: Shows pictographs evolving into cuneiform (star, god, water)
Note: These cartouches show how hieroglyphs represented certain sounds, spelling out the names Ptolomy and Cleopatra.
The Rosetta Stone
Carved in 196 BCE, discovered in 1799.
Note: This discovery allowed researchers to decipher hieroglyphs, because it contained the same text in Egyptian and Greek.
Unknown Japanese artist
Note: Shows flatness and floral ornamentation that would be embraced by Art Nouveau.
Note: Subdued colors, black outline, no shading or gradient.
Katsushika Hokusai, “Red Fuji”
Note: Woodcuts were popular in Japan at this time, and the technique resulted in flat, colorful images.
Note: Large figures, “greater unity of word and type.” Cheret is known as the Father of the Modern Poster.
Note: Dividing space into panels and inserts; decorative pattern moved to foreground.
Aubrey Beardsley, “The Eyes of Herod”.
Note: Great and innovative use of positive and negative shapes.
Aubrey Beardsley, “Morte d’Arthur”
Note: An eerie, “evil” version of Arts and Crafts patterning.
Charles Ricketts, title page for “The Sphinx”
Note: Wanted to design entire books, not just add illustrations to books.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, “Moulin Rouge”
Flat shapes become symbols; silhouettes; subdued colors.
Contemporary of Toulouse-Lautrec; Japanese influence; ornamental “halo”; image in front of lettering (tail).
Alphonse Mucha, “Gismonda”
Note: Art Nouveau had arrived with this work. Overnight sensation.
Alphonse Mucha, ad for Job cigarette papers
Note: Ornamentation fills the entire frame, almost upstaging the woman.
Note: Ornamentation starts to look more geometric; less organic; symmetrical.
Late Art Nouveau.
Late Art Nouveau.
Note: Simplification of ornamentation; more geometric and repetitive.
Moser, Roller, Koenig, ads for Ver Sacrum
Note: Ver Sacrum was the key publication for the Vienna Secession. Every aspect of it was designed with a sense of unity in mind.
Peter Behrens, A Celebration of Life and Art (spread).
Note: Geometric, rectilinear frame and sans serif font.
Berthold Foundry, Akzidenz Grotesk (or Standard) typefaces.
Note: San serif typefaces were an expression of modern values.