Artist: Pablo Picasso, “The Violinist”
Cubism: Showing various planes of subjects from different angles simultaneously.
Juan Gris, “Fruit Bowl”
Cubism. The Spanish painter, Juan Gris, was the leading figure of Synthetic Cubism, which followed Picasso and Braque’s Analytical Cubism.
Georges Braque, “Violin and Glass”
Cubism. Braque’s father was a decorator who taught Braque and Picasso to paint lettering and fake textures (like wood or signage), which they incorporated into their paintings.
Filippo Marinetti, page from “Parole”
Futurism. Marinetti and other futurists used type as visual elements, making arrangements and layouts that mimicked the meaning of the words—or just the sound of words.
Giacomo Balla, “Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash”
Futurism: The Futurists were interested in conveying speed and time in their work. This work reflects an awareness of cinema and multiple frames within a single image.
Umberto Boccioni, “Unique Forms of Continuity in Space”
Futurist. This Futurist sculpture is more interested in capturing movement and form than memorializing a historical moment or figure.
Marcel Duchamp, “The Fountain”
Dadaism. Duchamp’s “ready-mades” were common objects, like this urinal, that were placed in another context—a museum or gallery, for example, as art.
Tristan Tzara, cover for “The Bearded Heart”
Dadaism. A deliberately wacky Dada layout with “illustrations randomly dispersed about the page with not communicative intent.”
Rene Magritte, “Son of Man”
Surrealism. Magritte’s surrealists works date back the 1920’s, when he sought to conjure up the feeling of dreams with odd juxtapositions.
Salvador Dali, “The Dream”
Surrealism. Dali’s imaginative landscapes and distorted figures documented a painterly exploration of dreams.
Kasimir Malevich, “Black Square”
Suprematism. Malevich and the Suprematists wanted to reduce painting to the “zero degree”—”the point beyond which the medium could NOT go without ceasing to be art.”
El Lissitzky, “Beat the White Circle with the Red Wedge”
Suprematism. This uses simple colors and shapes to convey a propagandistic message about the Russian Revolution (the Reds were the revolutionaries). The use of type in a painting is groundbreaking.
Alexander Rodchenko, “Books” poster
Constructivism. Rodchenko was among the first artists to use photography in combination with illustrated elements.
Piet Mondrian, “Composition with Yellow, Blue and Red”
De Stijl. Mondrian and other artists of this movement wanted to reduce art to the “essentials of color and form”.
Theo van Doesburg, “Composition VII”
De Stijl. Doesburg was the founder of De Stijl and also a secret Dadaist.
Marcel Bruer, Wassily Chair
Bauhaus. The chair is a great example of Bauhaus simplicity and form. It was artful but could also be mass produced.
Walter Gropius, Bauhaus campus
Bauhaus. Gropius believed in harmony of function and form. The complex was built with its function as an art school in mind.
Laszlo Moholy Nagy, Photograms
Bauhaus. Moholy Nagy (pronounced Naj) was a professor at the Bauhaus who was a painter and innovator of artistic, non-figurative photography and film.
Josef Albers, “Homage to the Square: Glow”
Bauhaus. Albers literally wrote the book on color theory, based on ideas formed while teaching at Bauhaus.
Herbert Bayer, Universal Bayer
Bauhaus. Bayer wanted to move German type away from its medieval roots with new, minimal type. This typeface only came in lower case letters, no capital letters.
Paul Klee, “Abstract on Black”
Bauhaus. Klee taught painting at Bauhaus. He stressed color and form over figurative or representational work.
Wassily Kandinsky, “Composition VII”
Bauhaus. The Russian painter Kandinsky was famous before Bauhaus as one of the original abstract painters. He tried to convey spiritual meaning through shape, color and composition.