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Flashcards in Midterms Vocab Deck (32)
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1

innovation

A novel or improved idea, device, product, etc, or the development thereof.

2

bitrate

(sometimes written bitrate) the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. e.g. 8 bits/sec.

3

latency

Time it takes for a bit to travel from its sender to its receiver.

4

protocol

A set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices.

5

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII is the universally recognized raw text format that any computer can understand.

6

IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force

develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards and protocols, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).

7

Net Neutrality

the principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally by Internet Service Providers.

8

IP address

A number assigned to any item that is connected to the Internet.

9

packets

Small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from larger chunks of information.

10

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol - provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of packets on the internet. TCP is tightly linked with IP and usually seen as TCP/IP in writing.

11

DNS

The service that translates URLs to IP addresses.

12

HTTP - HyperText Transfer Protocol

the protocol used for transmitting web pages over the Internet

13

URL

An easy-to-remember address for calling a web page (like www.code.org).

14

Heuristic

a problem solving approach (algorithm) to find a satisfactory solution where finding an optimal or exact solution is impractical or impossible.

15

Lossless Compression

a data compression algorithm that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.

16

image

A type of data used for graphics or pictures.

17

metadata

is data that describes other data. For example, a digital image my include metadata that describe the size of the image, number of colors, or resolution.

18

pixel

short for "picture element" it is the fundamental unit of a digital image, typically a tiny square or dot which contains a single point of color of a larger image.

19

RGB

the RGB color model uses varying intensities of (R)ed, (G)reen, and (B)lue light are added together in to reproduce a broad array of colors.

20

Lossy Compression

(or irreversible compression) a data compression method that uses inexact approximations, discarding some data to represent the content. Most commonly seen in image formats like .jpg.

21

Aggregation

a computation in which rows from a data set are grouped together and used to compute a single value of more significant meaning or measurement. Common aggregations include: Average, Count, Sum, Max, Median, etc.

22

Pivot table

in most spreadsheet software it is the name of the tool used to create summary tables.

23

summary table

a table that shows the results of aggregations performed on data from a larger data set, hence a "summary" of larger data. Spreadsheet software typically calls them "pivot tables".

24

Algorithm

A precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer

25

abstraction

Pulling out specific differences to make one solution work for multiple problems.

26

function

A piece of code that you can easily call over and over again.

27

API

a collection of commands made available to a programmer

28

documentation

a description of the behavior of a command, function, library, API, etc.

29

Library

a collection of commands / functions, typically with a shared purpose

30

parameter

An extra piece of information that you pass to the function to customize it for a specific need.