Flashcards in Migration Deck (102)
People who more their permanent residence from one country to another.
Define economic migrant
Someone who has emigrated from one region to another fro better employment importunities or an improved financial position.
A person who has moved outside of their own country of nationality or usual dominance due to genuine fear of death
Define an irregular ot illegal migrant
A person who enters and remains in a country without a valid visa or permit from that country, or who has overstayed the duration of a visa that has been granted or those who's visa has been cancelled.
Define long-term migration
A person who moves to a country other than their own for a period of at least one year
Define short term migrant
A person who moves for at least three months but shorter than one year
What does the term natural change refer to?
Either Natural increase (crude birth rate>crude death rate) or natural decrease (crude birth rate
What does Net migration refer to?
The difference between the total numbers of immigrants and emigrants for a particular country.
Explain Ravenstains migration theory.
He found that
1. Most migrants move a short distance
2. migration occurs in a series of steps or staged
3. As well as movement to a large cities there is movement away from them
4.Long distance migrants are more likely to go to large cities
5. Urban dwellers are less migratory than rural dwellers
6. women are more migratory than men over short distances
7. migration increases with advances in technology
What does Zipf's inverse Distance Law State
That the volume of migration is inversely proportional to the distance travelled.
Explain Lee's PERCEIVED Push and Pull factor model
Push factors- These are negative factors which operate in a migrants current location e.g. a lack of jobs, expensive housing, persecution.
Pull factors- These are perceived advantages of a potential destination with attracts migrants. stable political systems, a higher paid wage, transport links.
What is the Neoclassical Economic Theory
The most significant push/pull factor are wage differences. therefore migration tends to flow from low-wage areas to high-wage areas
What is the Dual Labour market theory.
That migration is mainly caused by pull factors in more developed countries. Migrant workers are needed to fill the lowest valued jobs because the native population doesn't wish to do this work.
What is the New Economics of Labour Migration
The migration flows and patterns cannot be explained solely at the level of individual workers and the push and pull factors that incentivise migration. For example an impoverished household or wider social group can improve its condition through remittances sent back by family members who participate in migration labour abroad.
What is the Relative Deprivation Theory
States that awareness of the income difference between neighbours in a source community is an important factor in migration. Successful migrants may use their new affluence to provide for better schooling for their children and better homes for their families. Successful high-skilled emigrants may serve as an example for neighbours and potential migrants who hope to achieve that level of success.
What is the World Systems Theory
Looks at migration from a global perspective. Trade with one country, which causes economic decline in another, may create incentives to migrate to a country with a more vibrant economy. It can be argued that even after decolonisation, the economic dependence of former colonies still remains on mother countries, encouraging migration along traditional routes. However, some disagree, arguing that free trade can reduce migration by relocation production from high wage economies to lower wage.
What political factors explain some migrant flows in the EU
The Scchebgan Agreement
The expansion of the EU to incline the E8 countries
What are the main reasons for ultra-regional migrant flows?
Economic- employment opportunities, high wage, better standard of living, relative ease of return to the home country after earning a higher wage for a few years
What are migrant remittances?
Private funds sent by economic migrants usually back to their families who remain in the country of origin.
What is the HDI?
Composite index which is the UNs measure of development based on economic and social factors
What percent of all Polish migrants to the UK are of working age?
What is the equation for international migration?
Population change= (births-deaths) +- international migration
Give an example of inter-regional migration
Movement between Africa and Europe
Give examples of some push factors in the Middle East and Africa
War- uprooted 5.5 million people in Africa and elsewhere in the first 6 months of 2013
War and human rights absuse
conflict and civil breakdown in Libya
Give examples of intervening obstacles for migration from the Middle East to Europe
Laws and borders
Pull factors of Southern Europe
Larger scale of development
more job opportunities
lack od dear
Ethiopia received US$378m in remittances
In 2012 how many people migrated within the EU
What is the main motive for migration within the EU
Economic e.g. Polish migrants moving to the UK- 2013 apron 660,000 poles living in the UK
What percent of A8 workers that came to the Uk where ages 18-34