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A Level Psychology: C2 (Eduqas) > Milgram > Flashcards

Flashcards in Milgram Deck (36):
1

Why was Milgram's study not an experiment?

The level of shocks was not an independent variable

2

How were participants selected?

Volenteer sampling after an advert was put in a New Haven newspaper maying $4.50 for participation in a learning and memory study

3

What sampling technique was used?

Volenteer sampling

4

How many were participants paid?

$4.50
Money didn't depend on them completing the study

5

What newspaper was the advert posted in?

New Haven

6

How many participants were there?

20 male participants between the ages of 20 and 50 from a range of backgrounds

7

What was the age range of the participants?

20-50

8

Where did the study take place?

Yale University

9

What was the procedure?

Paired with learner (Mr Wallace)
Learner strapped to an electric chair
Participant taken to ajoining room and given sample shock
Every time learner was wrong, voltage was increased

10

How was the learner and teacher decided?

Draw slips of paper

11

Who was Mr Wallace?

The learner
An actor who was Milgram's assistant

12

Where was the shock generator compared to the electric chair?

An ajoining room

13

How many switches were on the shock machine?

30

14

How often were shocks given?

Every 4 switches

15

What was the worst label on the switches?

XXX (fatal)

16

Why was the teacher given a sample shock?

To prove the machine was real

17

When was the teacher to administer a shock?

Every time the learner got a wrong awnser

18

What feedback did the experimenter give?

4 standard prompts eg:
Please continue
The experiment requires you continue

19

What is an example of a standard prompt?

The experiment requires you continue

20

How were the participants de-hoaxed?

After the study they were reunited with Mr Wallace and debreifed before being interviewed about their experiance

21

At what voltage did Mr Wallace protest?

300volts

22

How many psychology students did Milgram survey before the study?

14

23

What did the psychology students predict about the participants?

0-3% would administer 450 volts

24

How many participants administerd 450 volts?

65%

25

How many participants refused to continue after 300 volts?

12.5%

26

What are examples of the nervousness participants showed?

Biting nails
Stuttering
Sweating

27

How many participants displayed nervous laughter?

14

28

How many participants had siezures?

1

29

What did Milgram conclude?

Situational factors make it difficult to disobey

30

What situational factors did Milgram identify that made it difficult to disobey?

Prestigious location provided authority
Participants volenteered so felt obligated
They assumed the experimenter was an expert
Learner was in a seperate room

31

What points can be made when evaluating the study?

Internal validity
Ethical issues

32

Why is internal validity an issue with the study?

Orne and Holland: Participants may not have thought they were giving real electric shocks but behaved as such due to demand characteristics
Perry: Participants were suspicious as the experimenter remained so calm

33

Who commented on the internal validity of the study?

Orne and Holland
Perry

34

What did Orne and Holland say about the internal validity of the study?

Participants may not have thought they were giving real electric shocks but behaved as such due to demand characteristics

35

How was psychological harm an issue:

Baumrind: He caused psychological damage that could not be justifyed
Perry: He failed in his duty of care as some participants waited a year before their debreifing

36

How does Milgram defend himself about psychological harm?

Didn't know it would be so stressful
84% were glad to have taken part