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A Level Psychology: C2 (Eduqas) > Kohlberg > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kohlberg Deck (33):
1

What was the methodology?

Interviews used to collect qualitive data
Cross-cultural longitudinal study
75 participants
10-16 and 22-28
UK, Canada, Turkey, Mexico, Taiwan

2

What research method was used?

Interviews

3

How many participants were there?

75

4

What were the age ranges of the participants?

10-16 and 22-28

5

What countries did the participants come from?

UK, Canada, Taiwan, Mexico, Turkey

6

What was the procedure?

9 moral dilemmas
Participants discussed 3
Prompted by a set of 10 open ended questions
Awnsers analysed and themes identifyed
Re-interviewed every 3 years

7

How often were the participants interviewed?

Every 3 years

8

What were the findings of the study?

Stage theory
Younger children at the preconventional level
As they got older, they were less focused on themselves
Development in Mexico and Taiwan was slower

9

What stage did Kohlberg think young children were at?

Preconventional level

10

What were the conclusions?

Stages are universal and people go through them in the same order.
Each stage is higher moral understanding
Moral discussion develops moral thinking

11

What are the levels of moral development?

Preconventional
Conventional
Postconventional

12

What is the preconventional level?

We accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions based on their concequences such as reward and punishment

13

What are the stages of the preconventional level?

Punishment and obedience orientation
Instumental purpose orientation

14

What is the punishment and obedience orientation?

Ignores the intentions of behaviour and focuses on obeying the rules due to punishment

15

What is the instumental purpose orientation?

Actions are right if they satisfy their own needs

16

What is the conventional level?

Conformity to social rules is desirable due to self interest

17

What are the stages at the conventional level?

Interpersonal cooperation
Social-order-maintaining orientation

18

What is interpersonal cooperation?

What is right is defined by what is expected

19

What is the Social-order-maintaining orientation?

What is right is established by the norms of the larger social system

20

What is the post-conventional level?

Morality is an abstract moral concept that applies to all societies and situations

21

What are the stages of the post-conventional level?

Social contract orientation
Universal ethical principles orientation

22

What is the social contract orientation?

Laws are seen as flexiable and can be changed if they are not consistant with human rights

23

What is the Universal ethical principles orientation?

Morality is self-chosen abstract principles that don't always line up with laws

24

What evaluative points can be made?

Sampling
External validity
Social desirability
Culutral bias
Reliability

25

Why is the sampling method used a negative thing?

All participants weree male
Gillian: Women more concerned with caring rather than justice
He was gender biased as decisions were more to do with justice
Core principles unchallenged

26

Who criticised his sampling?

Gillian

27

Why is external validity low?

Gillian: Not based on real life situations
Hypothetical situations make little sense to young children

28

How could social desirability bias have had an effect?

People may describe behaviour idealistically
Those with better idealistic thinking showed more moral behaviour
15% of college students cheated on a test compared to 70% of pre-conventional children
Burton: Depends on liklihood of punishment

29

What percentage of college students and pre-conventional students cheated on a test?

College students: 15%
Pre-conventional students: 70%

30

What did Burton argue about behaviour according to moral principles?

Behaviour depends on liklihood of punishment

31

How did Kohlberg avoid cultural bias?

He changed the questions to be more relevant to the culture

32

What was Colby's study?

58 American boys progressed as expected but only 10% reached stage 5 and none reached stage 6

33

What was Snarey's study?

Meta analysis of 44 studies from 27 cultures and found 1-4 were correct stages.
Stage 5 was more common in Western cultures