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Flashcards in mineral Identification Deck (33)
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1

Dxic flow - 1st decision

Is its Luster:  Non-metallic, or Metallic?

Color:

1. non-metallic:  Light or Dark?

2. metallic:  Streak's color + mineral's color

2

Second decision if

1. Luster is non-metallic

2. Luster is metallic

1. Non-Metallic: Hardness vs. glass

2. Metallic: Streak

3

If Non-Metallic, Light, is it:

1. Harder than glass

2. Softer than glass

4

Metallic - 3 groups of streak colors:

1. Streak is black, gray, or greenish-black:

2. Streak is brown to reddish-brown:

3. Streak is yellow or brown:

5

Metallic - Streak is black, gray, or greenish-black, and: ✅1. Perfect cubic cleavage, silver-gray color: 2. Magnetic: 3. Steel gray color, H=1, greasy feel: 4. Golden yellow, greenish-black streak: 5. Brass yellow, cubic crystals:

Galena - PbS

6

Metallic - 4th dxic criterion Streak is black, gray, or greenish-black, and: 1. Perfect cubic cleavage, silver-gray color: ✅2. Magnetic: 3. Steel gray color, H=1, greasy feel: 4. Golden yellow, greenish-black streak: 5. Brass yellow, cubic crystals:

Magnetite - Fe₃O₄

7

Metallic - Streak is black, gray, or greenish-black, and: 1. Perfect cubic cleavage, silver-gray color: 2. Magnetic: ✅3. Steel gray color, H=1, greasy feel (not granular, fibrous, or micaceous [Hematite]): 4. Golden yellow, greenish-black streak: 5. Brass yellow, cubic crystals:

Graphite - C

8

Metallic - 4th dxic criterion Streak is black, gray, or greenish-black, and: 1. Perfect cubic cleavage, silver-gray color: 2. Magnetic: 3. Steel gray color, H=1, greasy feel: ✅4. Golden yellow, greenish-black streak: 5. Brass yellow, cubic crystals:

Chalcopyrite - CuFeS₂

9

Metallic -   Streak is black, gray, or greenish-black, and: 1. Perfect cubic cleavage, silver-gray color: 2. Magnetic: 3. Steel gray color, H=1, greasy feel: 4. Golden yellow, greenish-black streak: ✅5. Brass yellow, cubic crystals:

Pyrite - FeS₂

10

Metallic - Streak brown to reddish-brown, Mineral steel gray and granular, fibrous, or micaceous [not soft or greasy-feeling {≡Graphite}]

Hematite - Fe₂O₃

11

Metallic - Streak yellow, brown, or brownish yellow; Mineral is yellow, brown, or black

Limonite - Fe₂O₃•H₂O

12

If non-metallic, light, +H +Clvg, it is:

Feldspar

Both types of feldspars exhibit good cleavage in 2 directions at 〜90º

 

Orthoclase - light to dark, salmon pinks (K)

Plagioclase - white, grays (Ca, Na)

13

If it's Non-met, +H (=7), —Clvg, +Conchoidal fracture it is:

Quartz - SiO2

14

A mineral is Non-Metallic, Light color, —H, ++Clvg has:

✅1. Perfect cubic cleavage; salty taste; colorless to white; soluble in water

2. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction, poor in 2 others; H=2

3. Perfect cleavage in 3 directions at 〜75°; effervesces in HCl / 4. efferv. only if powdered

5. Good cleavage in 4 directions

6. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction —> thin, elastic sheets

7. Green to white; soapy feel; pearly luster; H=1; 1 dir of cleavage

Halite - NaCl

15

A mineral is Non-Metall, Light color, —H, ++Clvg and has:
1. Perfect cubic cleavage; salty taste; colorless to white; soluble in water
✅2. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction, poor clvg in 2 others; H=2
3. Perfect cleavage in 3 directions at ~75°; effervesces in HCl / 4. efferv. only if powdered
5. Good cleavage in 4 directions
6. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction —> thin, elastic sheets
7. Green to white; soapy feel; pearly luster; H=1; 1 dir of cleavage

Gypsum - CaSO4・2H2O

16

A mineral is Non-Metallic, Light color, —H, ++Clvg and has:
1. Perfect cubic cleavage; salty taste; colorless to white; soluble in water
2. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction, poor in 2 others; H=2
✅3. Perfect cleavage in 3 directions at ~75°; effervesces in HCl / or 4. efferv. only if powdered
5. Good cleavage in 4 directions
6. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction —> thin, elastic sheets
7. Green to white; soapy feel; pearly luster; H=1; 1 dir of cleavage

Calcite - CaCo3

(Fine-grained crystaline aggregates form limestone and marble.)

17

A mineral is Non-Metallic, Light color, —H, ++Clvg and has:
1. Perfect cubic cleavage; salty taste; colorless to white; soluble in water
2. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction, poor in 2 others; H=2
3. Perfect cleavage in 3 directions at ~75°; solid surface effervesces in HCl

✅4. Perfect cleavage in 3 directions at ~75°; effervesces in HCl only if powdered
5. Good cleavage in 4 directions
6. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction —> thin, elastic sheets
7. Green to white; soapy feel; pearly luster; H=1; 1 dir of cleavage

Dolomite - CaMg(CO3)2

18

A mineral is Non-Metallic, Light color, —H, ++Clvg and has:
1. Perfect cubic cleavage; salty taste; colorless to white; soluble in water
2. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction, poor in 2 others; H=2
3. Perfect cleavage in 3 directions at ~75°; effervesces in HCl / 4. efferv. only if powdered
✅5. Good cleavage in 4 directions
6. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction —> thin, elastic sheets
7. Green to white; soapy feel; pearly luster; H = 1; 1 dir of cleavage

Fluorite - CaF2

19

A mineral is Non-Metallic, Light color, —H, ++Clvg and has:
1. Perfect cubic cleavage; salty taste; colorless to white; soluble in water
2. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction, poor in 2 others; H=2
3. Perfect cleavage in 3 directions at ~75°; effervesces in HCl / 4. efferv. only if powdered
5. Good cleavage in 4 directions
✅6. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction —> thin, elastic sheets
7. Green to white; soapy feel; pearly luster; H=1; 1 dir of cleavage

Muskovite - KAl3AlSi3O10(OH)2

20

A mineral is Non-Metallic, Light color, —H, ++Clvg and has:
1. Perfect cubic cleavage; salty taste; colorless to white; soluble in water
2. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction, poor in 2 others; H=2
3. Perfect cleavage in 3 directions at ~75°; effervesces in HCl / 4. efferv. only if powdered
5. Good cleavage in 4 directions
6. Perfect cleavage in 1 direction —> thin, elastic sheets
✅7. Green to white; soapy feel; pearly luster; H=1; 1 dir of cleavage

Talc - Mg3Si4O10(OH)2

21

A mineral is Non-Metallic, Light color, —H, —Clvg, with

Color: White to Red

Earthy masses

Kaolinite - Al4Si4O10(OH)8

22

A mineral is Non-M, Dark, +H, +Clvg and has Cleavage in:


✅ 2 directions at nearly 90º; dark green to black;

2 directions at approx. 60º and 120º; dark green to black or brown;

Good cleavage in 2 directions at approx. 90º; gray to blue-gray;

Pyroxene Group

Complex Ca, Mg, Fe, Al silicates

23

A mineral is Non-M, Dark, +H, +Clvg and has cleavage in:


2 directions at nearly 90º; dark green to black;
✅ 2 directions at approx. 60º and 120º; dark green to black or brown;
Good cleavage in 2 directions at approx. 90º; gray to blue-gray;

Amphibole Group

Complex Na Ca Mg Fe Al silicates

24

A mineral is Non-M, Dark, +H, +Clvg and has Cleavage in:
2 directions at nearly 90º; dark green to black;
2 directions at approx. 60º and 120º; dark green to black or brown;
✅ Good cleavage in 2 directions at approx. 90º; gray to blue-gray;

Plagioclase feldspar - NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O4

25

A mineral is Non-M, Dark, +H, —Clvg and:


✅ 1. Comes in various shades of green; sometimes yellowish; commonly in aggregates of small,   glassy grains;
2. Is red, brown or yellow; vitreous luster;
3. Conchoidal fracture; gray to gray-black; vitreous luster;

Olivine - (Fe, Mg)2SiO4

26

A mineral is Non-M, Dark, +H, —Clvg and:


1. Comes in various shades of green; sometimes yellowish; commonly in aggregates of small, glassy grains;

✅ 2. Is red, brown or yellow; vitreous luster;

3. Conchoidal fracture; gray to gray-black; vitreous luster;

Garnet Group - Fe, Mg, Ca, Al silicates

27

A mineral is Non-M, Dark, +H, —Clvg and:


1. Comes in various shades of green; sometimes yellowish; commonly in aggregates of small, glassy grains;

2. Is red, brown or yellow; glassy luster;

✅ 3. Conchoidal fracture; gray to gray-black; vitreous luster;

Quartz - SiO2

28

A mineral is Non-M, Dark, -H, +Clvg and:

✅ 1. Brown to black; 1 perfect cleavage;

2. Green to very dark green; 1 cleavage direction;

3. Yellowish brown; resinous luster;

4. Four perfect cleavage directions;

Biotite - K(Mg, Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2

29

A mineral is Non-M, Dark, -H, +Clvg and:


1. Brown to black; 1 perfect cleavage;
✅ 2. Green to very dark green; 1 cleavage direction;
3. Yellowish brown; resinous luster;
4. Four perfect cleavage directions;

Chlorite - Hydrous Mg, Fe, Al silicate

30

A mineral is Non-M, Dark, -H, +Clvg and:
1. Brown to black; 1 perfect cleavage;
2. Green to very dark green; 1 cleavage direction;
✅ 3. Yellowish brown; resinous luster; clvg in 6 directions;
4. Four perfect cleavage directions;

Sphalerite - ZnS